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Table 4 Differences in body circumferences from 18 to 22 years of age (measurements at 22 – measurements at 18 years) by sex, according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, maternal information and dietary intake at 18 years

From: Evolution of total body and regional adiposity from late adolescence to early adulthood in a birth cohort study

  Waist circumference (cm) Hip circumference (cm) Thigh circumference (cm)
Men Women Men Women Men Women
Mean (95%CI)* Mean (95%CI)* Mean (95%CI)* Mean (95%CI)* Mean (95%CI)* Mean (95%CI)*
SEP (quintiles)a 0.187 b 0.001 b 0.270 b 0.003 b 0.142 b 0.004 b
 1stquintile (lowest) 1.8 (1.0; 2.6) 3.6 (2.9; 4.3) 1.0 (0.3; 1.6) 2.3 (1.8; 2.9) 1.2 (0.8; 1.6) 2.7 (2.2; 3.1)
 2ndquintile 2.7 (2.0; 3.5) 4.0 (3.2; 4.8) 1.7 (1.1; 2.2) 2.4 (1.8; 3.0) 1.6 (1.2; 1.9) 2.4 (1.9; 2.9)
 3rdquintile 3.0 (2.3; 3.7) 3.5 (2.8; 4.2) 1.7 (1.2; 2.3) 2.5 (1.9; 3.1) 2.0 (1.6; 2.4) 2.6 (2.2; 3.1)
 4th quintile 2.8 (2.1; 3.5) 3.0 (2.2; 3.7) 1.7 (1.1; 2.2) 1.7 (1.1; 2.4) 1.6 (1.3; 2.0) 2.0 (1.5; 2.5)
 5th quintile (highest) 2.7 (2.0; 3.4) 1.8 (0.9; 2.6) 1.6 (1.0; 2.2) 1.0 (0.3; 1.6) 1.7 (1.3; 2.1) 1.6 (1.0; 2.1)
Pre-gestational maternal BMI a 0.177 b 0.040 b 0.839 b 0.422 b 0.413 b 0.361 b
 Normal 2.5 (2.2; 2.9) 3.0 (2.6; 3.4) 1.5 (1.2; 1.8) 1.9 (1.6; 2.2) 1.6 (1.4; 1.8) 2.2 (2.0; 2.4)
 Overweight 3.4 (2.6; 4.1) 3.9 (3.1; 4.7) 2.0 (1.4; 2.6) 2.5 (1.8; 3.1) 1.8 (1.4; 2.2) 2.5 (2.0; 3.0)
 Obese 2.7 (1.2; 4.1) 3.9 (2.4; 5.4) 0.9 (−0.2; 2.1) 1.8 (0.6; 3.0) 1.7 (1.0; 2.5) 2.3 (1.4; 3.3)
Maternal age at birth a 0.143 b 0.902 b 0.153 b 0.867 b 0.040 b 0.769 b
 18 to 35 years 2.8 (2.4; 3.1) 3.2 (2.8; 3.5) 1.7 (1.4; 1.9) 2.0 (1.7; 2.3) 1.7 (1.5; 1.9) 2.3 (2.0; 2.5)
  < 18 years 2.4 (1.3; 3.6) 3.5 (2.3; 4.8) 1.5 (0.5; 2.4) 2.3 (1.3; 3.2) 1.5 (0.9; 2.1) 2.8 (2.0; 3.6)
  ≥ 36 years 2.0 (1.0; 3.0) 3.1 (2.0; 4.3) 1.0 (0.2; 1.8) 1.8 (0.9; 2.7) 1.1 (0.6; 1.7) 1.9 (1.2; 2.6)
Birth weight a 0.732 b 0.349 b 0.427 b 0.537 b 0.929 b 0.393 b
  < 2500 g 2.8 (1.6; 4.0) 2.7 (1.6; 3.7) 2.0 (1.0; 2.9) 1.6 (0.7; 2.4) 1.8 (1.2; 2.4) 1.7 (1.1; 2.3)
 2500-4000 g 2.6 (2.3; 3.0) 3.3 (2.9; 3.6) 1.6 (1.3; 1.8) 2.1 (1.8; 2.4) 1.6 (1.5; 1.8) 2.4 (2.2; 2.6)
  > 4000 g 3.1 (1.9; 4.4) 3.3 (1.6; 5.0) 1.4 (0.4; 2.4) 1.5 (0.2; 2.9) 1.8 (1.1; 2.4) 1.5 (0.5; 2.7)
Skin colour a 0.879 b 0.076 b 0.543 b 0.708 b 0.502 b 0.207 b
 White 2.7 (2.3; 3.1) 2.8 (2.4; 3.3) 1.5 (1.2; 1.9) 1.9 (1.6; 2.3) 1.6 (1.4; 1.8) 2.1 (1.8; 2.4)
 Brown 2.8 (2.0; 3.6) 3.4 (2.6; 4.2) 1.8 (1.1; 2.4) 2.0 (1.4; 2.7) 1.7 (1.3; 2.2) 2.4 (1.9; 2.9)
 Black 2.6 (1.7; 3.4) 4.3 (3.4; 5.2) 1.5 (0.8; 2.2) 2.2 (1.5; 2.9) 1.8 (1.4; 2.3) 2.7 (2.1; 3.2)
Daily energy intake in kcal at 18y (quintiles) a 0.890 b 0.673 b 0.168 b 0.910 b 0.296 b 0.336 b
 1st (lowest) 2.7 (2.0; 3.3) 3.1 (2.5; 3.7) 1.4 (0.9; 1.9) 2.1 (1.7; 2.5) 1.6 (1.2; 1.9) 2.2 (1.8; 2.6)
 2nd 2.8 (2.2; 3.3) 2.9 (2.3; 3.5) 1.6 (1.1; 2.0) 1.6 (1.1; 2.1) 1.7 (1.4; 2.0) 2.1 (1.7; 2.5)
 3rd (highest) 2.7 (2.2; 3.2) 3.3 (2.7; 4.0) 1.9 (1.4; 2.3) 2.2 (1.7; 2.7) 1.8 (1.5; 2.1) 2.5 (2.1; 2.9)
  1. *Mean displayed for the difference between measure collected at 22 - measure collected at 18)
  2. aAll analyses were adjusted for SEP at birth; bp-trends from linear regression are displayed