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Table 1 Dietary compounds and their effects against melanoma

From: Dietary compounds and cutaneous malignant melanoma: recent advances from a biological perspective

Dietary source/compounds Anti-melanoma effect References
Coffee/various phytochemicals inhibition of oxidative stress and oxidative damage, regulation of DNA repair, phase II enzymatic activity, apoptosis, inflammation, antiproliferative, antiangiogenetic effects, and antimetastatic effects 29–39
Tea/catechins and theaflavins reverse damage caused by UV light; decrease in UV-induced skin tumor incidence and size inhibiting angiogenesis, modulation of the immune system; activation of enzyme systems involved in cellular detoxification; EGCG inhibits erythema, enhances pyrimidine dimer repair in DNA, in UV-irradiated human skin 40–50
Pomegranate decreases tyrosinase activity and melanin production; decreases phosphorylation of CREB, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes; strong antitumor agent in animal models 51–50
Resveratrol antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells, induction of apoptosis; modulation of photodamaged skin 61–76
Vitamin A Inhibition of growth, proliferation, apoptosis-induction, alteration of cytokines profiles 77–85
Vitamin C to limit the toxic effects of ROS, immune homeostasis, apoptosis 86–93
Vitamin D anti-proliferative activity, effects on the immune system 109–113
Vitamin E reduction of IL-6 and IFN-γ production by different leukocyte subset, to limit the toxic effects of ROS, tyrosinase-inactivation 94–101
GSPs, Luteolin, Apigenin, etc.
protection against UV damage; Induction of apoptosis Inhibition of cell growth in cell lines. Reversed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition 114–138