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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Visceral fat reduction is positively associated with blood pressure reduction in overweight or obese males but not females: an observational study

  Male Female p*
No. of subjects 74 94  
Age (y), mean (SD) 38.4 ± 6.6 38.1 ± 7.9 0.760
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 89.6 ± 11.2 73.4 ± 8.0 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 30.0 ± 2.8 28.8 ± 3.0 0.011
Systolic BP (mm Hg), mean (SD) 134.1 ± 15.2 120.6 ± 16.3 < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg), mean (SD) 88.7 ± 12.1 78.4 ± 12.2 < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 19 (20.4) 42 (53.2) < 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 3 (3.3) 5 (6.5) 0.332
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 18 (19.4) 26 (32.5) 0.048
Smoking status, n (%)    0.042
 Smoker 13 (16.3) 6 (6.4)  
 None-smoker 67 (83.8) 88 (93.6)  
Medication, n (%)
 Aspirin 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Antihypertensive drugs 10 (12.5) 3 (3.2) 0.021
 Hypolipidemic drugs 5 (6.3) 2 (2.1) 0.168
 Insulin 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs 2 (2.5) 2 (2.1) 0.870
 Vitamin 8 (10.0) 9 (9.6) 0.925
 Minerals 6 (7.5) 7 (7.4) 0.989
Education level, (%)    0.478
 University 63 (78.8) 78 (83.0)  
 High school 17 (21.3) 16 (17.0)  
 Primary school 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Marital status, (%)    0.352
 Single 6 (7.5) 11 (11.7)  
 Married 74 (92.5) 83 (88.3)  
 Widowed 0 (0) 0 (0)  
VFA (cm2) 126.0 ± 34.3 145.0 ± 30.9 < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, VFA visceral fat area. Data are given as means (SD) for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables; p < 0.05 indicates statistical significance. *p-values calculated by analysis of variance or χ2 tests