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Table 2 Characteristic of body composition parameters and blood pressure before and after the study among males and femalesa

From: Visceral fat reduction is positively associated with blood pressure reduction in overweight or obese males but not females: an observational study

   Male(n = 74) Female(n = 94) p b
BW (kg) Baseline 89.6 ± 11.2 73.4 ± 8.0 < 0.001
Changes −2.0 ± 3.7 −1.6 ± 2.6 0.486
Final 87.5 ± 11.1 71.7 ± 8.7 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) Baseline 30.0 ± 2.8 28.8 ± 3.0 0.011
Changes −0.6 ± 1.2 −0.6 ± 1.0 0.994
Final 29.3±3.0 28.2 ± 3.2 0.02
WC (cm) Baseline 102.5 ± 7.2 93.1 ± 7.6 < 0.001
Changes −2.2 ± 4.5 −1.4 ± 4.3 0.219
Final 100.3 ± 7.6 91.7 ± 8.1 < 0.001
WHtR Baseline 0.96 ± 0.06 0.93 ± 0.05 < 0.001
Changes 0.02 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.03 0.017
Final 0.98 ± 0.08 0.96 ± 0.06 0.037
FFM (kg) Baseline 61.4 ± 6.6 44.2 ± 4.2 < 0.001
Changes −0.5 ± 1.5 −0.6 ± 1.1 0.779
Final 60.9 ± 6.6 43.6 ± 4.4 < 0.001
BFM (kg) Baseline 28.2 ± 6.7 29.7 ± 5.7 0.283
Changes −0.6 ± 3.4 0.1 ± 2.1 0.137
Final 27.5 ± 7.6 29.3 ± 6.2 0.101
BFP (%) Baseline 31.1 ± 4.7 39.6 ± 4.3 < 0.001
Changes −0.4 ± 2.9 0.3 ± 1.9 0.92
Final 30.7 ± 5.9 39.8 ± 4.7 < 0.001
VFA (cm2) Baseline 126.0 ± 34.3 145.0 ± 30.9 < 0.001
Changes −0.4 ± 20.2 4.1 ± 12.9 0.082
Final 125.1 ± 42.0 149.1 ± 34.9 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) Baseline 134.1 ± 15.2 120.6 ± 16.3 < 0.001
Changes −3.8 ± 9.8 1.7 ± 13.9 0.005
Final 129.9 ± 14.0 122.3 ± 15.8 0.001
DBP (mmHg) Baseline 88.7 ± 12.1 78.4 ± 12.2 < 0.001
Changes −4.7 ± 8.7 −0.9 ± 9.4 0.008
Final 83.7 ± 9.6 77.5 ± 11.4 < 0.001
  1. aData are given as means (SD); p < 0.05 indicates statistical significance. bData were analyzed by one-way ANOVA;
  2. BW body weight, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHtR waist to hip ratio, FFM fat free mass, BFM body fat mass, BPF body fat percent, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure