Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables of the subjects included in the analyses

From: Effect of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal and cord blood metabolomic profiles: results from the ROLO randomized controlled trial

  Maternal blood Cord blood
Control group
(n = 26)
Intervention group
(n = 25)
p-value Control group
(n = 68)
Intervention group
(n = 64)
p-value
Maternal anthropometry and blood parameters
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 24.34 ± 4.40 26.36 ± 5.33 [1] NS 25.38 ± 4.27 26.24 ± 4.36 [1] NS
 Maternal age (years) 33.37 ± 5.73 32.30 ± 6.89 NS 33.00 ± 5.04 32.45 ± 6.31 NS
 Gestational weight gain (kg) 13.20 ± 4.06 [7] 12.18 ± 4.74 [7] NS 13.20 ± 4.59 [13] 12.40 ± 4.69 [16] NS
 Fasting glucose, 13th week (mmol/l) 4.50 ± 0.40 [1] 4.40 ± 0.50 NS 4.50 ± 0.40 [4] 4.50 ± 0.40 [2] NS
 Fasting glucose, 28th week (mmol/l) 4.60 ± 0.42 [2] 4.50 ± 0.30 NS 4.50 ± 0.60 [3] 4.50 ± 0.50 [2] NS
 Total cholesterol, 13th week (mmol/l) 4.77 ± 0.92 [9] 4.81 ± 1.01 [8] NS 4.76 ± 1.06 [28] 5.25 ± 1.32 [25] 0.072
 Total cholesterol, 28th week (mmol/l) 6.31 ± 1.30 [8] 6.39 ± 1.06 [9] NS 6.16 ± 1.13 [26] 6.46 ± 1.30 [24] NS
 HDL cholesterol, 13th week (mmol/l) 0.80 ± 0.26 [9] 0.93 ± 0.38 [8] NS 0.78 ± 0.28 [28] 0.87 ± 0.40 [25] NS
 HDL cholesterol, 28th week (mmol/l) 0.97 ± 0.32 [8] 1.04 ± 0.34 [9] NS 0.93 ± 0.39 [26] 1.02 ± 0.40 [24] NS
 LDL cholesterol, 13th week (mmol/l) 3.35 ± 0.64 [9] 3.45 ± 1.03 [8] NS 3.34 ± 0.89 [28] 3.64 ± 0.90 [25] NS
 LDL cholesterol, 28th week (mmol/l) 4.71 ± 1.40 [8] 4.62 ± 1.22 [9] NS 4.26 ± 1.33 [26] 4.75 ± 1.23 [24] NS
 LDL cholesterol, difference 28th - 13th week (mmol/l) 0.83 ± 1.47 [9] 1.06 ± 0.60 [9] NS 0.98 ± 1.17 [29] 1.01 ± 0.83 [27] NS
Maternal diet
 Daily energy intake T1 (kcal) 1803.28 ± 357.75 [4] 1873.09 ± 420.48 [5] NS 1876.03 ± 506.89 [10] 1793.15 ± 467.24 [13] NS
 Daily energy intake T2 (kcal) 1839.30 ± 279.74 [4] 1775.72 ± 532.19 [4] NS 1932.25 ± 434.53 [10] 1759.49 ± 534.65 [11] 0.085
 Daily energy intake T3 (kcal) 1915.07 ± 334.97 [4] 1800.89 ± 450.74 [3] NS 2022.50 ± 494.67 [10] 1768.26 ± 473.59 [10] 0.027
 Daily GI T1 57.10 ± 6.76 [4] 57.09 ± 3.57 [6] NS 57.13 ± 5.45 [11] 56.98 ± 4.38 [14] NS
 Daily GI T2 58.52 ± 2.99 [4] 55.25 ± 2.95 [6] 0.004 57.66 ± 3.93 [11] 55.65 ± 3.42 [14] 0.001
 Daily GI T3 58.60 ± 3.97 [4] 56.61 ± 3.72 [6] NS 57.76 ± 4.83 [11] 56.15 ± 4.21 [14] NS
 Total fat intake T1 (g) 71.35 ± 22.41 [4] 70.32 ± 26.29 [5] NS 76.10 ± 22.08 [10] 72.13 ± 25.26 [13] NS
 Saturated fat intake T1 (g) 30.26 ± 11.38 [4] 27.74 ± 11.65 [5] NS 31.12 ± 10.23 [10] 27.35 ± 14.41 [13] 0.057
 Monounsaturated fat intake T1 (g) 22.59 ± 7.08 [4] 23.26 ± 6.53 [5] NS 23.81 ± 6.42 [10] 23.91 ± 7.22 [13] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T1 (g) 10.87 ± 6.05 [4] 10.73 ± 5.37 [5] NS 10.87 ± 5.65 [10] 10.80 ± 5.11 [13] NS
 Total fat intake T2 (g) 71.80 ± 13.20 [4] 70.49 ± 26.74 [4] NS 75.01 ± 24.54 [10] 70.25 ± 25.53 [11] 0.077
 Saturated fat intake T2 (g) 26.97 ± 10.95 [4] 24.51 ± 8.20 [4] NS 29.56 ± 10.96 [10] 24.51 ± 11.56 [11] 0.019
 Monounsaturated fat intake T2 (g) 21.91 ± 4.80 [4] 22.75 ± 7.53 [4] NS 23.34 ± 8.38 [10] 22.63 ± 8.73 [11] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T2 (g) 11.39 ± 5.60 [4] 10.79 ± 6.03 [4] NS 12.23 ± 5.41 [10] 10.55 ± 4.76 [11] NS
 Total fat intake T3 (g) 75.28 ± 22.81 [4] 73.48 ± 30.10 [3] NS 79.31 ± 22.91 [10] 70.82 ± 29.12 [10] NS
 Saturated fat intake T3 (g) 28.49 ± 10.77 [4] 29.32 ± 18.93 [3] NS 29.92 ± 12.11 [10] 26.37 ± 13.87 [10] NS
 Monounsaturated fat intake T3 (g) 23.33 ± 6.30 [4] 24.43 ± 8.99 [3] NS 25.56 ± 7.54 [10] 21.56 ± 10.81 [10] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T3 (g) 10.17 ± 5.23 [4] 13.01 ± 5.69 [3] NS 12.04 ± 5.32 [10] 11.34 ± 5.36 [10] NS
 Total fat intake T1 (%kcal) 0.37 ± 0.09 [4] 0.34 ± 0.06 [5] NS 0.38 ± 0.07 [10] 0.35 ± 0.08 [13] NS
 Saturated fat intake T1 (%kcal) 14.76 ± 5.36 [4] 13.49 ± 4.31 [5] NS 15.16 ± 4.63 [10] 13.55 ± 4.09 [13] NS
 Monounsaturated fat intake T1 (%kcal) 11.68 ± 3.59 [4] 11.20 ± 2.93 [5] NS 11.76 ± 3.14 [10] 11.34 ± 3.75 [13] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T1 (%kcal) 5.71 ± 2.18 [4] 5.31 ± 1.74 [5] NS 5.64 ± 1.92 [10] 5.09 ± 2.33 [13] NS
 Total fat intake T2 (%kcal) 0.36 ± 0.06 [4] 0.36 ± 0.06 [4] NS 0.36 ± 0.07 [10] 0.35 ± 0.06 [11] NS
 Saturated fat intake T2 (%kcal) 13.39 ± 3.91 [4] 12.93 ± 4.72 [4] NS 13.60 ± 3.87 [10] 12.56 ± 4.36 [11] NS
 Monounsaturated fat intake T2 (%kcal) 11.21 ± 2.81 [4] 10.76 ± 2.78 [4] NS 11.57 ± 2.56 [10] 10.90 ± 3.14 [11] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T2 (%kcal) 5.63 ± 1.86 [4] 5.93 ± 1.86 [4] NS 5.57 ± 1.91 [10] 5.48 ± 1.97 [11] NS
 Total fat intake T3 (%kcal) 0.36 ± 0.06 [4] 0.36 ± 0.04 [3] NS 0.36 ± 0.06 [10] 0.36 ± 0.06 [10] NS
 Saturated fat intake T3 (%kcal) 13.50 ± 4.34 [4] 14.10 ± 4.27 [3] NS 13.73 ± 4.00 [10] 13.24 ± 3.76 [10] NS
 Monounsaturated fat intake T3 (%kcal) 11.36 ± 2.62 [4] 11.60 ± 2.67 [3] NS 11.39 ± 2.07 [10] 11.33 ± 2.72 [10] NS
 Polyunsaturated fat intake T3 (%kcal) 5.52 ± 1.91 [4] 5.93 ± 1.61 [3] NS 5.43 ± 2.07 [10] 5.59 ± 1.63 [10] NS
New-born anthropometry
 Gestational age (days) 280 ± 10.00 [1] 284 ± 8.00 0.022 282 ± 12.25 284 ± 10.00 0.048
 Child sex - female 17 (65%) 11 (44%) NS 39 (57%) 30 (47%) NS
 Birth weight (g) 3860 ± 460.00 4090 ± 480.00 NS 3995 ± 532.50 4105 ± 550.00 NS
 Birth length (cm) 52.00 ± 3.00 [6] 52.75 ± 1.88 [7] NS 52.50 ± 2.75 [13] 53.00 ± 3.00 [15] NS
 Birth ponderal index (100 g/cm3) 2.60 ± 0.28 [6] 2.81 ± 0.50 [7] NS 2.73 ± 0.44 [13] 2.70 ± 0.41 [15] NS
  1. Values are reported in absolute number (%) or median ± interquartile range. Numbers in square brackets indicate the amount of missing values. P-values were calculated via Mann-Whitney U-tests and chi-square tests. Abbreviations: GI glycaemic index, T1/T2/T3 (Pregnancy) Trimester 1/2/3, NS non significant