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Table 1 Demographic, anthropometric, dietary intake and serum biochemical parameters according to the tertiles of dietary glycemic indexa

From: Dietary glycemic index and dietary glycemic load is associated with apelin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of adults

  Dietary glycemic index tertiles  
T1 T2 T3 P valueb
Age (years) 43.3 ± 14.4 43.4 ± 14.2 38.3 ± 14.2 0.252
Female (%) 85.3 70.6 78.8 0.514
Low physical activity (%) 47.1 44.1 42.4 0.882
Body mass index (kg/m2) 33.8 ± 10.7 36.6 ± 10.8 35.3 ± 10.6 0.561
Waist Circumference 107.1 ± 22.5 113.2 ± 22.0 107.6 ± 24.3 0.491
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 86.7 ± 12.1 86.7 ± 10.9 87.6 ± 8.3 0.925
Insulin (μU/mL) 6.0 (4.4–9.8) 5.8 (3.1–8.1) 9.4 (5.6–19.6) 0.007
HOMA-IR 1.74 ± 1.5 1.47 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 4.3 0.012
Insulin resistant (%) 11.8 5.9 22.3 0.020
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 68.0 (61.7–90.2) 66.5 (60.2–83.7) 72.5(65.0–87.5) 0.463
Apelin (pg/mL) 263.2 ± 68.9 244.4 ± 82.6 302.6 ± 120.6 0.048
Total energy intake (kcal) 2778 ± 628 2951 ± 849 2896 ± 1027 0.694
Total carbohydrate (% of energy) 54.6 ± 6.1 57.8 ± 8.2 57.7 ± 6.7 0.121
Total carbohydrate (g/d) 397.9 ± 53.1 403.4 ± 53.2 421.4 ± 54.9 0.181
 Dietary glycemic index 48.1 ± 5.5 56.5 ± 1.7 65.7 ± 6.8 < 0.001
 Dietary glycemic load 188.8 ± 33.4 232.3 ± 40.8 275.8 ± 47.5 < 0.001
 High glycemic foods (serv/d) 6.9 ± 2.2 8.8 ± 3.6 11.7 ± 4.1 < 0.001
 Medium glycemic foods (serv/d) 1.3 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 1.9 1.1 ± 1.5 0.258
 Low glycemic foods (serv/d) 11.3 ± 4.6 11.3 ± 6.0 8.4 ± 11.0 0.006
Protein (% of energy) 14.7 ± 2.8 14.2 ± 2.5 13.7 ± 2.7 0.328
Fat (% of energy) 33.6 ± 5.9 30.8 ± 6.7 30.7 ± 5.1 0.090
  1. aData are represented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and percent for categorically distributed variables
  2. blinear regression was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. The residual model was used to adjust total energy intake for dietary exposures