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Table 1 Characteristics of prospective studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Association between coffee consumption and risk of bladder cancer in a meta-analysis of 16 prospective studies

Author, years Country Population Duration, yr Participants N of cases (% M)
N and sex Age, yr % Smoker
Jacobsen, 1986 [19] Norway Norwegian cohort of mostly men 11.5 13,664 M; 2891 W ≥35 37.9% (M only) 94 (69.1%)
Mills, 1991 [26] US AHS 5.3 34,198 M&W ≥25 1.4% 52 (69.2%)
Chyou, 1993 [27] US Japanese-American men 22.0 7995 M NR 43.7% 96 (100%)
Stensvold, 1994 [15] Norway CVD screening Participants 10.1 21,735 M; 21,238 W 35–54 46.1% (M);
34.1% (W)
53 (75.5%)
Michaud, 1999 [28] US HPFS 9.1 47,909 M 40–75 9.6% 252 (100%)
Nagano, 2000 [29] Japan LSS 11.7 14,873 M; 23,667 W 52.8 (M);
56.8 (W)
35.0% 114 (72.8%)
Zeegers, 2001 [16] The Netherlands NCS 6.1 1515 M; 1598 W (sub-cohort) 55–69 34.0% (M);
20.0% (W)
569 (93.5%)
Tripathi, 2002 [30] US IWHS 13.0 37,459 W 55–69 15.0% 112 (0%)
Kurahashi, 2009 [17] Japan JPHC 12.6 49,566 M; 54,874 W 40–69 52.5% (M);
6.7% (W)
206 (79.6%)
Ros, 2011 [21] 5 European countries EPIC 9.3 67,914 M; 165,322 W 53.7 (M);
52.9 (W)
23.7% 513 (50.5%)
Hashibe, 2015 [31] US PLCO 14.0 97,334 M&W 55–74 9.1% 398 (NA)
Loftfield, 2017 [6] US NIH-AARP Diet and Health 15.5 469,047 M&W 50–71 14.2% 6012 (84.6%)
Sugiyama, 2017 [17] Japan MCS; OCS 17.6 (MCS); 13.3 (OCS) 73,346 M&W 40–64 (MCS); 40–79 (OCS) 35.3% 274 (73.7%)
Gapstur, 2017 [5] US CPS-II 23.4 696,391 M&W nonsmokers 28–94 0% 1789 BCa death (NA)
Lukic, 2018 [8] Norway and Sweden NOWAC; NSHDS 13.6 193,439 M&W 25–74 24.8% 479 (59.7%)
Hashemian, 2019 [9] Finland ATBC 17.6 26,841 male smokers 57.2 100% 835 (100%)
  1. Abbreviations: AHS Adventist Health Study, ATBC Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention, BCa bladder cancer, CPS Cancer Prevention Study, CVD cardiovascular disease, EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study, HPFS Health Professionals Follow-up Study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, JPHC Japan Public Health Center, LSS Life-Span Study, M men, MCS Miyagi Cohort Study, NA not available, NCS Netherlands Cohort Study, NIH-AARP National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons, NOWAC Norwegian Women and Cancer, NSHDS Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, OCS Ohsaki Cohort Study, PLCO Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian, W women