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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population by quartiles of HOMA-IR changes

From: Impact of 3-year changes in fasting insulin and insulin resistance indices on incident hypertension: Tehran lipid and glucose study

 Quartiles of HOMA-IR changes  
1st2nd3rd4thTotal 
(< − 0.550)(≥ − 0.550 – < − 0.056)(≥ − 0.056 – <  0.416)(≥ 0.416) 
(n = 703)(n = 704)(n = 704)(n = 703)(n = 2814)P valuea
Male gender, n (%)243 (34.6)296 (42.0)288 (40.9)296 (42.1)1123 (39.9)0.010
Age, years37.5 (12.6)40.1 (13.1)40.6 (13.6)39.5 (12.4)39.4 (13.0)<  0.001
BMI, Kg/m227.3 (4.6)26.4 (4.3)26.2 (4.6)26.9 (4.5)26.7 (4.5)<  0.001
WC, cm89.6 (12.2)87.8 (11.5)87.2 (11.5)89.5 (11.7)88.5 (11.8)<  0.001
Education level, n (%)     0.235
 <6 years129 (18.3)141 (20.0)164 (23.3)154 (21.9)588 (20.9) 
 6–12 years445 (63.3)432 (61.4)423 (60.1)440 (62.6)1740 (61.8) 
  ≥ 12 years129 (18.3)131 (18.6)117 (16.6)109 (15.5)486 (17.3) 
Marital status, n (%)     0.666
 Married549 (78.1)545 (77.4)563 (80.0)538 (76.5)2195 (78.0) 
 Divorced/widowed26 (3.7)33 (4.7)30 (4.3)36 (5.1)125 (4.4) 
 Single128 (18.2)126 (17.9)111 (15.8)129 (18.3)494 (17.6) 
Physical activity, n (%)     0.638
 <600255 (36.3)252 (35.8)247 (35.1)269 (38.3)1023 (36.4) 
  ≥ 600448 (63.7)452 (64.2)457 (64.9)434 (61.7)1791 (63.6) 
SBP, mmHg109.7 (11.1)109.7 (11.1)109.1 (12.0)110.0 (11.5)109.6 (11.4)0.580
DBP, mmHg72.1 (8.1)71.5 (8.1)71.1 (8.4)72.0 (8.2)71.7 (8.2)0.079
Smoker, n (%)     0.149
 Never/past635 (90.3)613 (87.1)630 (89.5)614 (87.3)2492 (88.6) 
 Current68 (9.7)91 (12.9)74 (10.5)89 (12.7)322 (11.4) 
History of CVD, n (%)7 (1.0)6 (0.9)6 (0.9)11 (1.6)30 (1.1)0.512
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m278.8 (13.1)78.2 (13.4)78.3 (13.1)79.0 (13.0)78.6 (13.1)0.551
FPG, mmol/L5.00 (4.77–5.38)4.94 (4.66–5.16)4.83 (4.55–5.11)4.83 (4.55–5.16)4.88 (4.61–5.22)<  0.001
TC, mmol/L4.90 (1.00)4.83 (1.01)4.75 (0.95)4.86 (1.07)4.84 (1.01)0.040
TG, mmol/L1.45 (1.03–2.15)1.32 (0.94–1.88)1.27 (0.94–1.81)1.41 (0.94–2.08)1.36 (0.96–1.98)<  0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L1.01 (0.26)1.03 (0.28)1.03 (0.27)1.00 (0.26)1.02 (0.27)0.066
Incident hypertension, n (%)142 (20.2)129 (18.3)142 (20.2)181 (25.7)594 (21.1)0.004
  1. Data are shown as mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range), or number (proportion) as appropriate
  2. HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. a P values for difference across all quartiles of HOMA-IR changes were calculated with ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-square tests, as appropriate