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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of incident hypertension by quartiles of changes in fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and IGR in whole population

From: Impact of 3-year changes in fasting insulin and insulin resistance indices on incident hypertension: Tehran lipid and glucose study

 HR (95% CI)P for trendAICC index %
1st (reference)2nd3rd4th   
Insulina
 Model 11.001.15 (0.88–1.50)1.48 (1.14–1.92)1.85 (1.44–2.37)<  0.0018920.471.6
 Model 21.001.02 (0.78–1.33)1.37 (1.05–1.77)1.48 (1.15–1.90)0.0018572.379.7
 Model 31.000.96 (0.73–1.25)1.27 (0.98–1.66)1.31 (1.01–1.69)0.0158556.780.1
HOMA-IRb
 Model 11.000.99 (0.76–1.28)1.15 (0.89–1.49)1.65 (1.30–2.10)<  0.0018925.971.4
 Model 21.000.86 (0.66–1.12)1.08 (0.83–1.40)1.34 (1.05–1.71)0.0028572.079.6
 Model 31.000.81 (0.63–1.06)1.00 (0.77–1.30)1.18 (0.92–1.52)0.0168555.680.1
IGRc
 Model 11.001.30 (1.00–1.69)1.62 (1.25–2.09)1.98 (1.54–2.54)<  0.0018925.071.6
 Model 21.001.28 (0.99–1.67)1.52 (1.17–1.97)1.68 (1.31–2.17)<  0.0018568.179.8
 Model 31.001.21 (0.93–1.58)1.40 (1.08–1.82)1.53 (1.18–1.98)0.0088553.880.2
  1. HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, IGR insulin-glucose ratio, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, AIC Akaike’s information criteria, CVD cardiovascular disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. aModel 1: adjusted for age, sex, and baseline insulin; Model 2: model 1 + smoking, physical activity, marital status, history of CVD, education level, and baseline levels of SBP, DBP, BMI, FPG, TC, TG, HDL-C, and eGFR; Model 3: model 2 + BMI changes
  3. bModel 1: adjusted for age, sex, and baseline HOMA-IR; Model 2: model 1 + smoking, physical activity, marital status, history of CVD, education level, and baseline levels of SBP, DBP, BMI, TC, TG, HDL-C, and eGFR; Model 3: model 2 + BMI changes
  4. cModel 1: adjusted for age, sex, and baseline IGR; Model 2: model 1 + smoking, physical activity, marital status, history of CVD, education level, and baseline levels of SBP, DBP, BMI, TC, TG, HDL-C, and eGFR; Model 3: model 2 + BMI changes