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Table 1 Summary of adipose mTOR signaling on thermogenetic effects in rodents

From: mTOR signaling in Brown and Beige adipocytes: implications for thermogenesis and obesity

Refs mTOR related molecules Mouse model/ exp. condition Activity of mTOR signaling Tissue affected Phenotypes
Liu et al.2016 [79]   Rapamycin-treated mice (7days) under cold exposure
Rapamycin-treated mice (2 days) under cold exposure
mTORC1
inhibited
WAT
BAT
Thermogenic gene expression ↓
Thermogenic gene expression ↓
Core body temperature ↓
Tran et al.2016 [80]   Rapamycin-treated mice (2 weeks) under CL Stimulation (24 hours) mTORC1 inhibited WAT Cold tolerance ↓
Thermogenic gene expression ↓
Beige fat gene expression ↓
Makki et al.2014 [81]   Diet-induced obese mice with chronic treatment of rapamycin (22 weeks) mTORC1 inhibited BAT Energy expenditure ↑
Oxygen consumption ↑
BAT activity ↑
Labbe et al.2016 [71] Raptor raptor-/- mice (Adipoq-Cre) under cold exposure (2 weeks) mTORC1 inhibited BAT Systemic oxygen consumption ↓
BAT mass ↓
Nucleotide synthesis ↓
Mitochondrial biogenesis ↓
TCA cycle activity ↓
Thermogenic gene ↓
Lee et al. 201 6[72] Raptor raptor-/- mice (Adipoq-Cre) with HFD mTORC1 inhibited WAT
BAT
Expression of Ucp1 in WAT ↑
Expansion of WAT and BAT ↓
No changes on energy expenditure
Liu et al.2016 [79] Raptor raptor-/- mice (Adiponq-Cre) under cold exposure (7 days) mTORC1 inhibited WAT
BAT
Expression of Ucp1 ↓
Mitochondrial related genes ↓
Tran et al.2016 [80] Raptor raptor-/- mice (Adiponq-Cre) with CL stimulation (24h hours) mTORC1 inhibited WAT Thermogenic gene ↓
Lipolysis ↓
Adipocyte size ↑
Polak et al.2008 [86] Raptor raptor-/- mice (aP2-Cre) at thermoneutrality mTORC1 inhibited WAT Oxygen consumption ↑
Ucp1 expression ↑
Zhang et al.2018 [87] Raptor raptor-/- mice (Adiponectin-Cre) under cold exposure (2 days) mTORC1 inhibited WAT
BAT
Beige adipogenesis ↑
Thermogenic gene ↑
Thermogenic gene ↓
Shan et al.2016 [73] mTOR mTOR-/- mice (Adipoq-Cre) with ND mTORC1 inhibited WAT
BAT
Mass of BAT and WAT ↓
Thermogenic genes in WAT ↑
No changes on energy expenditure
Um et al.2004 [96] S6K S6K1-/- mice (whole body) under ND or HFD mTORC1 inhibited Whole body Lipolysis in WAT ↑
Mitochondria numbers in WAT ↑
Oxidative phosphorylation in WAT ↑
Metabolic related genes in WAT ↑
Le Bacquer et al. 2007 [97] 4EBPs 4E-BP1/ 2-/- mice (whole body) under ND or HFD mTORC1hyper-activated Whole body Oxygen consumption ↓
Lipolysis in WAT ↓
Liu et al.2014 [57] Grb10 Grb10-/-mice (Adipoq-Cre) under cold exposure mTORC1hyper-activated BAT Core body temperature ↓
Cold-induced thermogenic genes ↓
Meng et al.2017 [98] [99] Rheb Rheb-/-mice (Adipoq-Cre) under ND or HFD, with or without cold exposure mTORC1 inhibited WAT
BAT
Lipolysis ↑
Beige adipocytes in WAT ↑
Energy expenditure ↑
Thermogenic gene expression in BAT ↓
Magdalon et al.2016 [100] TSC1 TSC1-/- mice (Adipoq-Cre) under ND mTORC1hyper-activated WAT Lipolysis ↑
Ucp1 expression ↑
Mitochondrial oxidative activity ↑
Fatty acid oxidation ↑
PGC-1α and PPARα
Xiang et al.2015 [101] TSC1 TSC1-/- mice (aP2-Cre) under ND mTORC1hyper-activated BAT Brown adipocyte genes ↓
White adipocyte genes ↑
Albert et al.2016 [103] Rictor rictor-/- mice (aP2-Cre) under cold exposure mTORC2
inhibited
BAT Cold tolerance ↓
Glucose uptake ↓
Glycolysis ↓
Kumar et al.2010 [104] Rictor rictor-/- mice
(Ap2-Cre)
mTORC2 inhibited BAT
WAT
Glucose uptake ↓
Glycolysis ↓
Hung et al.2014 [107] Rictor rictor-/- mice (Myf5-Cre) under cold exposure mTORC2 inhibited BAT Mitochondrial activity ↑
Ucp1 expression ↑
Tang et al.2016 [108] Rictor rictor -/- mice (Adipoq-Cre) mTORC2 inhibited WAT Lipogenesis ↓
Glucose uptake ↓
Sanchez et al.2018 [109] Akt2 Akt2-/- mice (Ucp1-Cre) under cold exposure mTORC2 inhibited BAT Lipid synthesis and oxidation ↓
Ucp1 expression ↓
Sanchez et al.2019 [110] Akt1
Akt2
Akt1and Akt2-/- mice (Ucp1-Cre/Ucp1-CreER/Myf5-Cre) mTORC2 inhibited BAT Lipid droplets in BAT ↓
Ucp1 expression ↓
  1. Abbreviations: BAT Brown adipose tissue, CL CL-316243, Grb10 Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, HFD High fat diet, ND Normal diet, Raptor Regulatory associated protein of mTOR, Rheb Ras homolog enriched in brain, Rictor Raptor-independent companion of mTOR, S6K Ribosomal S6 kinase, TSC1 Tuberous sclerosis complex 1, WAT White adipose tissue, 4E-BPs Eif4e-binding proteins
  2. Note: ↑ increased; ↓ decreased