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Table 1 The characteristics of subjects according to subcutaneous and visceral fat mass

From: Subcutaneous fat mass is associated with genetic risk scores related to proinflammatory cytokine signaling and interact with physical activity in middle-aged obese adults

 HS-LV (n = 1190)LS-LV (n = 4349)HS-HV (n = 1016)LS-HV (n = 2287)
Age (years)49.6 ± 7.2b49.9 ± 8.9b54.4 ± 8.5a54.3 ± 4.7a+++
Gender (male, %)456(38.3)2924 (67.2)208 (20.5)595 (26.0)***
Residence area (Rural %)94.552.367.823.7***
Obesity (≥25 kg/m2)475 (39.9)718 (16.5)737 (72.5)1132 (49.5)***
Physical Activity (%)
 Little (< 10 min/day)62.644.859.640.7***
 Moderate (10–60 min/day)33.834.328.131.9
 Many (≥60 min/day)3.5820.912.327.5
Alcohol intake (%)
 None to Little (< 20 g/day)87.578.289.990.2***
 Moderate to heavy (≥20 g/day)12.521.810.19.79
Coffee intake (%)
 Little (< 1 cup/week)19.523.923.431.5***
 Moderate (1–10 cups/week)77.570.871.863.1
 Heavy (> 10 cups/week)3.05.34.85.4
Smoking intake (%)
 No smoking69.542.679.775.4***
 Past smoking13.420.68.7410.0
 Smoking17.136.811.514.6
 Energy intake (Kcal/day)1878 ± 594b1888 ± 605ab1918 ± 694ab1966 ± 858a+
 Carbohydrate intake (En%)70.5 ± 5.7b70.8 ± 7.0ab70.2 ± 7.1b71.2 ± 7.1a**
 Protein intake (En%)13.8 ± 4.4ab13.6 ± 5.4b14.0 ± 5.5a13.6 ± 5.5b***
 Fat intake (En%)14.8 ± 2.0ab14.6 ± 2.4ab15.1 ± 2.5a14.5 ± 2.5b**
  1. Subjects were categorized into 4 groups according to subcutaneous fat (cutoff point: 1.2 of the ratio of subcutaneous fat in subscapular site and BMI) and visceral fat (cutoff point: men, 90 cm and women, 80 cm of waist circumferences). HS-LV high subcutaneous fat and low visceral fat, LS-LV low subcutaneous fat and low visceral fat, HS-HV high subcutaneous fat and high visceral fat, LS-HV low subcutaneous fat and high visceral fat
  2. **Significant differences by subcutaneous fat in subscapular site by two-way ANOVA at P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001
  3. +Significant difference by visceral fat by waist circumference by two-way ANOVA at P < 0.05, +++ P < 0.001
  4. a,b,cMeans without a common letter differ in the same row at P < 0.05