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Table 2 Adjusted means and standard deviations of anthropometric and metabolic parameters according to the subcutaneous and visceral fat masses1

From: Subcutaneous fat mass is associated with genetic risk scores related to proinflammatory cytokine signaling and interact with physical activity in middle-aged obese adults

 HS-LV (n = 1190)LS-LV (n = 4349)HS-HV (n = 1016)LS-HV (n = 2287)
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.3 ± 2.0c22.8 ± 2.4d28.1 ± 2.7a27.0 ± 2.7b***+++
Body fat (%)27.8 ± 5.1a26.6 ± 5.8b27.3 ± 5.2a27.3 ± 5.5a***
Waist circumference (cm)80.0 ± 6.3b79.4 ± 6.7b86.5 ± 6.8a87.4 ± 6.1a+++
Subcutaneous fat in subscapular site (mm)34.2 ± 5.8b20.6 ± 6.2c36.5 ± 6.4a20.3 ± 5.9c***
Subcutaneous fat in suprailiac site (mm)29.8 ± 11.5a24.2 ± 9.0c30.5 ± 14a26.1 ± 9.4b***++
Serum total cholesterol (C) (mg/dl)195.1 ± 35.5a189.4 ± 35.1b199.8 ± 37.8a197.6 ± 35.5a+
Serum LDL-C (mg/dl)118.3 ± 32.7a113.6 ± 33.5b119.8 ± 34.0a118.9 ± 33.5a+
Serum HDL-C (mg/dl)44.0 ± 9.7b46.5 ± 10.6a44.0 ± 9.1b43.6 ± 9.2b+
Serum TG (mg/dl)163.4 ± 87.9b141.5 ± 103.6c180.2 ± 115.8a175.2 ± 109.7a++
DBP (mmHg)74.1 ± 11.7ab73.9 ± 11.3b75.4 ± 11.7a75.2 ± 11.1a++
SBP (mmHg)115.7 ± 16.4b115.6 ± 17.5b117.9 ± 18.3a117.0 ± 18.7ab+
HbA1c (%)5.8 ± 0.9b5.7 ± 0.9c6.0 ± 1.1a5.8 ± 1.0b+++
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)88.3 ± 22.7b86.5 ± 20.7b92.1 ± 23.0a89.8 ± 21.9a++
Serum insulin (μIU/mL)7.05 ± 3.27b6.51 ± 3.87b9.46 ± 5.12a8.88 ± 5.89a+++
HOMA-IR1.63 ± 0.9b1.55 ± 1.0b1.83 ± 1.3a1.78 ± 0.8a+++
HOMA-B149.7 ± 124.2148.5 ± 144.8143.4 ± 135.2152.2 ± 167.4
Serum CRP-1 (mg/dL)0.21 ± 0.35b0.23 ± 0.46ab0.23 ± 0.28ab0.27 ± 0.54a*+
  1. Subjects were categorized into 4 groups according to subcutaneous fat (cutoff point: 1.2 of the ratio of subcutaneous fat in subscapular site and BMI) and visceral fat (cutoff point: men, 90 cm and women, 80 cm of waist circumferences). HS-LV high subcutaneous fat and low visceral fat, LS-LV low subcutaneous fat and low visceral fat, HS-HV high subcutaneous fat and high visceral fat, LS-HV low subcutaneous fat and high visceral fat, TG triglyceride, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, CRP C-reactive protein, HOMA Homeostasis model assessment, IR insulin resistance, B insulin secretion
  2. 1Adjusted for age, gender, residence area, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat, alcohol and coffee intake, physical activity, smoking status, and energy intake
  3. *Significant differences by subcutaneous fat measured at the subscapular site in two-way ANOVA at P < 0.05, *** P < 0.001
  4. +Significant difference by visceral fat by estimated by waist circumference in two-way ANOVA at P < 0.05, ++ at P < 0.01, +++ P < 0.001
  5. a,b,cMeans without a common letter differ in the same row at P < 0.05