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Table 1 Characteristics of the population according to percentage of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat by sex: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

From: The association of dietary macronutrients with anthropometric changes, using iso-energetic substitution models: Tehran lipid and glucose study

 Tertiles of percentage of energy from carbohydrateTertiles of percentage of energy from proteinTertiles of percentage of energy from fat
123123123
Men (n = 2999)
 Carbohydrate (% of energy)52.6 ± 3.559.0 ± 1.465.2 ± 3.6*60.8 ± 6.560.4 ± 5.359.0 ± 5.4*64.5 ± 3.958.9 ± 2.953.3 ± 4.9*
 Protein (% of energy)14.9 ± 2.714.8 ± 1.914.4 ± 2.5*12.4 ± 1.014.4 ± 0.517.1 ± 2.3*14.8 ± 2.114.8 ± 2.414.1 ± 2.9*
 Fat (% of energy)34.9 ± 4.229.2 ± 2.324.3 ± 3.4*29.6 ± 6.228.2 ± 4.827.9 ± 4.4*23.9 ± 2.729.5 ± 1.335.8 ± 3.6*
 Age (years)39.5 ± 13.640.6 ± 13.543.6 ± 12.9*41.1 ± 13.041.3 ± 13.442.5 ± 13.743.0 ± 13.040.7 ± 13.540.4 ± 13.7*
 Baseline BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 4.326.6 ± 4.226.8 ± 4.126.4 ± 4.226.7 ± 4.127.1 ± 4.2*26.8 ± 4.126.7 ± 4.226.5 ± 4.2
 Weight change (kg)3.2 ± 7.23.1 ± 6.12.1 ± 5.7*2.9 ± 6.12.9 ± 6.22.5 ± 6.42.1 ± 5.53.2 ± 6.33.0 ± 7.1*
 Baseline WC (cm)94.4 ± 11.594.2 ± 10.895 ± 10.793.7 ± 11.494.6 ± 10.795.3 ± 10.6*94.8 ± 10.694.5 ± 10.994.2 ± 11.5
 WC change (cm)2.8 ± 6.92.6 ± 5.62.0 ± 5.3*2.6 ± 5.72.4 ± 5.72.2 ± 6.22.1 ± 5.32.6 ± 5.92.6 ± 6.7
 Energy intake (kcal)2545 ± 7272476 ± 6502443 ± 6802572 ± 6852445 ± 6672426 ± 686*2424 ± 6782492 ± 6582564 ± 719*
 Educational level (> 12 years)23.12927.1*21.728.230.7*30.625.821.8*
Physical activity status (%)
 Sedentary75.980.581.681.079.379.181.579.677.1
 Moderate13.712.311.010.912.113.411.212.912.5
 Active10.47.27.48.18.67.57.37.510.4
 Former/Current smoker (%)44.137.337.3*42.337.037.836.237.453.7*
Women (n = 4001)
 Carbohydrate (% of energy)52.0 ± 3.858.8 ± 1.465.2 ± 4.2*57.5 ± 7.258.4 ± 5.557.5 ± 6.0*64.6 ± 4.358.7 ± 2.952.6 ± 4.9*
 Protein (% of energy)14.6 ± 2.614.8 ± 3.514.4 ± 3.012.2 ± 1.114.4 ± 0.517.3 ± 3.5*15.3 ± 3.915.0 ± 2.214.0 ± 2.8*
 Fat (% of energy)36.2 ± 4.629.9 ± 2.625.0 ± 3.3*33.3 ± 6.930.4 ± 5.129.7 ± 4.9*24.2 ± 2.429.7 ± 1.336.7 ± 4.2*
 Age (years)38.3 ± 12.239.7 ± 12.542.2 ± 13.1*39.1 ± 12.538.5 ± 12.341.8 ± 12.9*43.1 ± 13.439.3 ± 12.238.3 ± 12.2*
 Baseline BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 5.227.2 ± 4.927.1 ± 5.227.1 ± 5.227.3 ± 5.128.1 ± 5.1*28.0 ± 5.127.5 ± 5.127.2 ± 5.2*
 Weight change (kg)2.6 ± 5.82.4 ± 5.62.0 ± 5.4*2.5 ± 5.42.5 ± 5.92.2 ± 5.61.7 ± 5.42.5 ± 5.62.7 ± 5.8*
 Baseline WC (cm)85.6 ± 13.585.4 ± 12.785.2 ± 13.485.5 ± 13.485.6 ± 13.387.5 ± 13.0*88.2 ± 13.285.9 ± 13.185.2 ± 13.3*
 WC change (cm)6.1 ± 8.16.2 ± 8.05.2 ± 8.0*6.1 ± 8.05.8 ± 8.25.8 ± 8.05.1 ± 7.86.3 ± 8.26.1 ± 8.1*
 Energy intake (kcal)2276 ± 6612245 ± 6322234 ± 679*2319 ± 6742268 ± 6472187 ± 643*2192 ± 6722261 ± 6332297 ± 663*
 Educational level (> 12 years)20.320.516.8*15.522.220.8*17.121.419.3*
Physical activity status (%)
 Sedentary84.784.585.985.385.284.486.784.884.0
 Moderate11.612.010.711.310.912.19.911.912.1
 Active3.73.53.43.43.93.63.43.33.9
Smoking (%)
 Former/Current smoker5.14.82.8*5.43.83.82.54.45.6*
  1. BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, Weight (kg) and WC (cm) change were calculated by subtracting the weight and WC at baseline from their measurements at follow up; increase in weight and WC were defined if weight or WC change were positive or > 0
  2. The metabolic equivalent values were categorized according to intensity using guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC). *P < 0.05