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Table 2 Adjusted weight change for iso-energetic replacement of macronutrients

From: The association of dietary macronutrients with anthropometric changes, using iso-energetic substitution models: Tehran lipid and glucose study

Type of macronutrient SubstitutionAllMenWomen
βP-valueβP-valueβP-value
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓0.000.96−0.030.040.010.65
 Protein ↓−0.010.57−0.040.250.010.71
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓−0.010.47−0.060.020.010.65
 MUFA ↓−0.030.11−0.060.02−0.000.90
 PUFA ↓−0.020.24−0.050.030.010.62
 Protein ↓−0.030.10− 0.030.14− 0.000.92
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓− 0.010.68− 0.020.330.010.52
 Plant Protein ↓−0.020.47−0.030.220.010.72
 Animal Protein ↓−0.020.46−0.040.250.010.73
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓−0.010.56−0.020.470.010.68
 MUFA ↓−0.030.14−0.050.07−0.000.95
 PUFA ↓−0.020.33−0.040.110.010.51
 Plant Protein ↓−0.030.10−0.060. 17−0.000.92
 Animal Protein ↓−0.030.01−0.040. 86−0.000.92
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.010.46−0.040.040.010.46
 Carbohydrate ↓−0.080.37−0.040.03−0.010.69
 Fat ↓−0.070.43−0.040.04−0.090.62
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓−0.690.05−0.080.010.030.96
 Starch ↓−0.170.12−0.050.03−0.180.39
 Non-starch ↓−0.720.04−0.080.00−0.000.10
 Fat ↓−0.710.04−0.080.010.030.96
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.010.52−0.050.020.010.57
 Carbohydrate ↓−0.110.23−0.060.00−0.050.77
 SFA ↓−0.060.52−0.040.04−0.030.86
 MUFA ↓−0.080.37−0.050.02−0.060.74
 PUFA ↓−0.090.30−0.050.01−0.110.54
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓−0.840.02−0.110.000.140.84
 Starch ↓−0.200.07−0.060.00−0.150.49
 Non-starch ↓−0.860.02−0.110.000.110.87
 SFA ↓−0.760.03−0.100.000.170.79
 MUFA ↓−0.760.03−0.0930.010.060.93
 PUFA ↓−0.860.02−0.110.00−0.000.99
  1. SFA Saturated fatty acid, MUFA Mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Non-starch carbohydrates: simple sugars. The percentage of energy from macronutrients divides by 5 to calculate one unit of each macronutrient. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate weight change for the iso-energetic increase (↑) of 1unit of percentage of energy from one macronutrient at the expense of another (↓). Models were adjusted for baseline age (continuous), sex (except sex strata), physical activity (low, moderate and high), smoking (former and current smoker/never smoked), education le vel (> 12 and ≤ 12 years of education), baseline BMI and energy intake