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Table 3 Odds ratio of increase in weight according to iso-energetic substitution of dietary macronutrients

From: The association of dietary macronutrients with anthropometric changes, using iso-energetic substitution models: Tehran lipid and glucose study

Type of macronutrient SubstitutionAllMenWomen
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓0.960.92–1.000.980.91–1.050.940.89–1.00*
 Protein ↓0.940.86–1.020.920.79–1.050.960.85–1.07
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓0.940.89–0.990.960.88–1.040.920.86–0.99
 MUFA ↓0.910.85–0.970.900.82–0.100.910.84–0.99
 PUFA ↓0.980.89–0.990.940.86–1.020.940.87–1.01
 Protein ↓0.910.85–0.970.910.83–1.010.910.84–0.99
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓0.960.92–1.010.990.92–1.070.960.90–1.02
 Plant Protein ↓0.940.86–1.020.890.77–1.030.960.85–1.07
 Animal Protein ↓0.940.86–1.020.910.79–1.050.950.85–1.07
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓0.940.89–0.100.990.90–1.080.930.86–1.01
 MUFA ↓0.910.85–0.970.930.84–1.030.920.84–1.00
 PUFA ↓0.970.89–0.100.990.87–1.050.950.88–1.02
 Plant Protein ↓0.910.85–0.970.910.82–1.010.910.84–0.99
 Animal Protein ↓0.910.85–0.970.930.84–1.040.910.84–0.99
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓1.010.99–1.020.810.63–0.981.010.98–1.03
 Carbohydrate ↓0.970.90–1.050.790.61–0.950.930.84–1.03
 Fat ↓0.980.91–1.060.820.64–0.970.930.84–1.04
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.760.57–0.100.680.44–1.060.850.58–1.23
 Starch ↓0.960.87–1.050.760.57–0.100.940.83–1.06
 Non-starch ↓0.750.57–0.100.650.42–1.020.870.61–1.29
 Fat ↓0.750.57–0.100.650.42–1.010.870.60–1.27
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓1.000.99–1.020.790.61–0.981.010.98–1.03
 Carbohydrate ↓0.960.89–1.030.740.57–0.850.920.83–1.03
 SFA ↓0.990.92–1.070.820.63–0.990.960.86–1.07
 MUFA ↓0.980.91–1.060.790.61–1.020.950.85–1.06
 PUFA ↓0.970.90–1.050.760.59–0.980.930.84–1.04
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.720.54–0.960.600.38–0.950.870.59–1.27
 Starch ↓0.950.86–1.040.710.53–0.930.940.83–1.07
 Non-starch ↓0.730.55–0.970.550.35–0.880.900.62–1.32
 SFA ↓0.740.56–0.990.600.38–0.950.900.61–1.31
 MUFA ↓0.750.57–1.000.630.40–0.990.890.61–1.30
 PUFA ↓0.720.54–0.960.560.35–0.890.880.60–1.28
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, SFA Saturated fatty acid, MUFA Mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Poly-unsaturated fatty acids, Non-starch carbohydrates: simple sugars
  2. Weight (kg) change was calculated by subtracting the weight at baseline from their measurements at follow up; increase in weight was defined if weight was positive or > 0. The percentage of energy from macronutrients divides by 5 to calculate one unit of each macronutrient. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate OR of weight change for the iso-energetic increase (↑) of 1 unit of percentage of energy from one macronutrient at the expense of another (↓). Models were adjusted for baseline age (continuous), sex (except sex strata), physical activity (low, moderate and high), smoking (former and current smoker/never smoked), education level (> 12 and ≤ 12 years of education), baseline BMI and energy intake