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Table 4 Adjusted waist circumference change for iso-energetic replacement of macronutrients

From: The association of dietary macronutrients with anthropometric changes, using iso-energetic substitution models: Tehran lipid and glucose study

Type of macronutrient SubstitutionAllMenWomen
βP-valueβP-valueβP-value
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓−0.010.49−0.050.80−0.010.68
 Protein ↓−0.010.53−0.030.450.000.93
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓− 0.010.43− 0.030.240.010.73
 MUFA ↓− 0.020.33− 0.040.080.010.75
 PUFA ↓−0.010.534−0.020.290.010.65
 Protein ↓−0.020.30−0.040.080.010.74
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓0.000.750.010.620.000.88
 Plant Protein ↓−0.010.58−0.030.380.000.84
 Animal Protein ↓−0.010.53−0.030.460.000.94
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓0.000.75−0.000.990.020.43
 MUFA ↓0.000835−0.020.370.020.50
 PUFA ↓0.000.91−0.010.780.010.47
 Plant Protein ↓0.020.31−0.040.070.010.69
 Animal Protein ↓0.000.87−0.020.410.010.50
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.010.59−0.050.000.010.54
 Carbohydrate ↓−0.120.14−0.050.00−0.150.48
 Fat ↓−0.120.16−0.050.01−0.170.31
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓−1.010.00−0.110.00−0.460.43
 Starch ↓−0.170.11−0.070.00−0.150.44
 Non-starch ↓−0.100.00−0.120.00−0.410.49
 Fat ↓−0.100.00−0.120.00−0.400.50
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓−0.050.00−0.010.00−0.030.07
 Carbohydrate ↓−0.050.00−0.070.00−0.030.08
 SFA ↓−0.050.00−0.030.68−0.060.00
 MUFA ↓−0.050.00−0.060.00−0.030.05
 PUFA ↓−0.050.00−0.070.00−0.030.07
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓−1.600.00−0.140.00−1.110.08
 Starch ↓−0.110.32−0.090.00−0.110.57
 Non-starch ↓−1.600.00−0.150.00−1.110.48
 SFA ↓−1.540.00−0.140.00−1.110.08
 MUFA ↓−1.570.00−0.130.00−1.110.08
 PUFA ↓−1.610.00−0.150.00−1.150.08
  1. SFA Saturated fatty acid, MUFA Mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Non-starch carbohydrates: simple sugars
  2. The percentage of energy from macronutrients divides by 5 to calculate one unit of each macronutrient. Estimating waist circumference change was calculated using linear regression analysis for the iso-energetic increase (↑) of 1 unit of percentage of energy from one macronutrient at the expense of another (↓). Models were adjusted for baseline age (continuous), sex (except sex strata), physical activity (low, moderate and high), smoking (former and current smoker/never smoked), education level (> 12 and ≤ 12 years of education), baseline waist circumference and energy intake