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Table 5 Odds ratio of increase in waist circumference according to iso-energetic substitution of dietary macronutrients

From: The association of dietary macronutrients with anthropometric changes, using iso-energetic substitution models: Tehran lipid and glucose study

Type of macronutrient SubstitutionAllMenWomen
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓1.010.96–1.060.100.93–1.071.020.95–1.09
 Protein ↓1.010.92–1.110.940.82–1.091.110.96–1.28
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓0.980.93–1.040.950.88–1.041.020.94–1.11
 MUFA ↓0.970.91–1.030.910.83–1.091.040.94–1.15
 PUFA ↓0.990.93–1.050.950.87–1.031.050.96–1.15
 Protein ↓0.970.91–1.040.920.84–1.021.040.94–1.15
Carbohydrate ↑
 Fat ↓1.020.97–1.071.020.95–1.111.040.96–1.11
 Plant Protein ↓1.010.92–1.110.920.79–1.071.110.95–1.29
 Animal Protein ↓1.010.92–1.110.940.82–1.091.100.98–1.27
Carbohydrate ↑
 SFA ↓0.990.93–1.050.980.89–1.071.060.96–1.16
 MUFA ↓0.980.91–1.040.950.85–1.051.050.95–1.17
 PUFA ↓0.990.94–1.060.980.89–1.071.060.96–1.18
 Plant Protein ↓0.970.91–1.040.920.83–1.011.040.94–1.15
 Animal Protein ↓0.970.91–1.040.950.86–1.061.040.94–1.15
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓1.000.99–1.020.650.50–0.851.000.98–1.03
 Carbohydrate ↓0.970.89–1.040.630.48–0.830.950.84–1.07
 Fat ↓0.960.89–1.040.660.51–0.860.930.82–1.06
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.490.36–0.670.400.25–0.650.630.41–0.97
 Starch ↓0.950.86–1.040.480.34–0.680.930.81–1.08
 Non-starch ↓0.490.36–0.670.390.24–0.630.630.41–0.97
 Fat ↓0.490.36–0.660.380.23–0.610.630.41–0.97
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓1.000.99–1.020.660.50–0.871.010.98–1.03
 Carbohydrate ↓0.960.89–1.040.630.48–0.820.960.84–1.09
 SFA ↓0.970.89–1.050.680.52–0.890.930.82–1.07
 MUFA ↓0.970.89–1.040.640.49–0.850.940.82–1.07
 PUFA ↓0.960.89–1.040.640.48–0.840.940.82–1.07
Plant protein ↑
 Animal protein ↓0.4910.36–0.660.390.24–0.620.640.42–0.99
 Starch ↓0.9470.86–1.050.500.36–0.690.950.81–1.01
 Non-starch ↓0.4890.36–0.670.380.23–0.610.640.42–0.99
 SFA ↓0.4950.36–0.680.390.24–0.630.640.41–0.99
 MUFA ↓0.4870.36–0.680.370.23–0.600.640.42–0.99
 PUFA ↓0.4810.35–0.660.360.22–0.590.640.41–0.98
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, SFA Saturated fatty acid, MUFA Mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Non-starch carbohydrates: simple sugars. Waist circumference (wc) change was calculated by subtracting the waist at baseline from measurements at follow up; increase in WC was defined if WC was positive or > 0. The percentage of energy from macronutrients divides by 5 to calculate one unit of each macronutrient. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the iso-energetic increase (↑) of 5 unit of percentage of energy from one macronutrient at the expense of another (↓). Models were adjusted for baseline age (continuous), sex (except sex strata), physical activity (low, moderate and high), smoking (former and current smoker/never smoked), education level (> 12 and ≤ 12 years of education), baseline WC and energy intake