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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to fibre intakea

From: Insoluble dietary fibre intake is associated with lower prevalence of newly-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese men: a large population-based cross-sectional study

 Categories of dietary fibre intakeP for trend b
Men (n = 10,998)Level 1 (n = 2750)Level 2 (n = 2749)Level 3 (n = 2749)Level 4 (n = 2750) 
Intake of dietary fibre (range, g/d)0.839, 17.41717.420, 24.13424.135, 33.69233.697, 173.414 
NAFLD (%)30.128.328.028.50.31
Age (years)39.5 (39.0, 39.9) c39.2 (38.7, 39.6)39.4 (39.0, 39.8)39.3 (38.9, 39.7)0.80
BMI24.9 (24.8, 25.0)24.8 (24.7, 25.0)25.1 (24.9, 25.2)25.1 (24.9, 25.2)0.02
ALT (U/L)23.2 (22.7, 23.6)22.8 (22.3, 23.2)23.0 (22.6, 23.5)22.7 (22.3, 23.2)0.26
AST (U/L)20.0 (19.5, 20.4)20.0 (19.6, 20.4)20.1 (19.6, 20.5)20.4 (20.0, 20.9)0.14
Type 2 diabetes (%)4.43.63.83.80.36
Hypertension (%)26.726.726.525.90.47
Hyperlipidaemia (%)49.245.946.644.9< 0.01
Physical activity (Mets × hours/week)9.3 (8.8, 9.7)11.1 (10.5, 11.6)13.2 (12.6, 13.9)14.3 (13.6, 15.0)< 0.0001
Energy intake (kcal/d)1666.3 (1652.1, 1680.5)2103.2 (2085.3, 2121.2)2247.8 (2228.7, 2267.1)2346.3 (2326.4, 2366.4)< 0.0001
Total fibre intake (g/d)12.8 (12.7, 12.9)20.6 (20.5, 20.8)28.3 (28.1, 28.5)46.4 (46.0, 46.7)< 0.0001
Soluble fibre intake (g/d)5.3 (5.2, 5.4)9.1 (9.0, 9.2)13.2 (13.1, 13.4)24.2 (24.0, 24.5)< 0.0001
Insoluble fibre intake (g/d)7.4 (7.3, 7.5)11.2 (11.1, 11.3)14.5 (14.4, 14.7)21.0 (20.8, 21.2)< 0.0001
Total carbohydrate intake (g/d)259.2 (256.0, 262.3)345.3 (341.1, 349.5)411.5 (406.5, 416.6)541.2 (534.6, 547.9)< 0.0001
Total fat intake (g/d)35.2 (34.7, 35.7)46.0 (45.3, 46.6)54.4 (53.6, 55.2)69.6 (68.6, 70.6)< 0.0001
Whole grain intake (g/d)6.8 (6.5, 7.1)11.4 (10.9, 11.9)14.8 (14.2, 15.4)19.0 (18.3, 19.9)< 0.0001
Soy foods intake (g/d)12.7 (12.2, 13.1)23.0 (22.2, 23.9)28.5 (27.5, 29.6)34.2 (32.9, 35.5)< 0.0001
Vegetables intake (g/d)162.2 (159.6, 164.9)239.4 (235.5, 243.3)296.6 (291.8, 301.4)389.4 (383.1, 395.8)< 0.0001
Fruits intake (g/d)119.4 (116.6, 122.2)227.5 (222.2, 232.9)335.6 (327.8, 343.5)607.7 (593.7, 622.1)< 0.0001
Nuts intake (g/d)3.4 (3.2, 3.5)5.5 (5.3, 5.7)7.2 (6.9, 7.4)9.3 (8.9, 9.6)< 0.0001
Sweet foods intake (g/d)8.3 (7.8, 8.7)14.3 (13.5, 15.1)18.0 (17.0, 19.1)29.5 (27.9, 31.3)< 0.0001
Red meat intake (g/d)26.3 (25.3, 27.4)32.5 (31.3, 33.8)34.6 (33.3, 36.0)34.1 (32.8, 35.5)< 0.0001
White meat intake (g/d)16.6 (15.9, 17.4)21.0 (20.1, 21.9)23.9 (22.9, 24.9)26.6 (25.5, 27.7)< 0.0001
DHA + EPA intake (g/d)3.2 (3.1, 3.3)4.0 (3.9, 4.1)4.5 (4.4, 4.6)5.6 (5.5, 5.7)< 0.0001
Education (≥ College graduate, %)64.669.970.169.0< 0.01
Household income (≥ 10,000 Yuan, %)32.137.937.035.10.17
Smoking status (%)
 Smoker39.735.834.032.4< 0.0001
  Ex-smoker9.38.89.48.30.28
 Non-smoker51.055.456.759.3< 0.0001
Drinker (%)
 Everyday7.06.75.66.00.07
 Sometime71.372.973.470.30.31
 Ex-drinker11.09.611.310.70.73
 Non-drinker10.810.89.813.00.01
Employment status (%)
 Managers39.342.143.444.9< 0.0001
 Professionals21.921.721.320.50.20
 Other38.936.235.334.6< 0.01
Family history of diseases (%)
 CVD25.025.525.822.30.02
 Hypertension45.144.947.343.20.33
 Diabetes22.622.222.321.00.18
Women (n = 12,531)Level 1 (n = 3133)Level 2 (n = 3133)Level 3 (n = 3132)Level 4 (n = 3133) 
 Intake of dietary fibre (range, g/d)0.400, 16.16116.164, 22.28422.287, 30.76030.764, 193.433 
NAFLD (%)10.09.810.410.20.89
 Age (years)38.0 (37.7, 38.4)38.6 (38.2, 39.0)39.1 (38.8, 39.5)39.1 (38.7, 39.5)< 0.01
 BMI22.5 (22.4, 22.6)22.6 (22.4, 22.7)22.6 (22.5, 22.7)22.6 (22.5, 22.7)0.07
 ALT (U/L)14.3 (14.1, 14.5)14.4 (14.2, 14.6)14.5 (14.3, 14.8)14.6 (14.4, 14.8)0.04
 AST (U/L)17.4 (17.1, 17.8)17.8 (17.4, 18.1)17.9 (17.5, 18.2)18.3 (17.9, 18.7)< 0.001
 Type 2 diabetes (%)2.11.71.51.30.01
 Hypertension (%)11.811.812.612.50.25
 Hyperlipidaemia (%)31.531.833.033.00.21
 Physical activity (Mets × hours/week)7.1 (6.8, 7.4)9.1 (8.7, 9.5)9.3 (8.9, 9.7)10.2 (9.7, 10.7)< 0.0001
 Energy intake (kcal/d)1456.3 (1443.7, 1469.0)1906.6 (1890.1, 1923.2)2134.7 (2116.2, 2153.3)2304.6 (2284.7, 2324.7)< 0.0001
 Total fibre intake (g/d)11.9 (11.8, 12.0)19.1 (19.0, 19.3)26.0 (25.8, 26.2)42.8 (42.4, 43.1)< 0.0001
 Soluble fibre intake (g/d)4.9 (4.8, 5.0)8.3 (8.2, 8.4)12.0 (11.8, 12.1)21.8 (21.6, 22.0)< 0.0001
 Insoluble fibre intake (g/d)6.8 (6.7, 6.9)10.5 (10.4, 10.6)13.5 (13.4, 13.6)19.9 (19.7, 20.1)< 0.0001
 Total carbohydrate intake (g/d)237.6 (234.9, 240.3)316.5 (313.0, 320.2)372.1 (367.9, 376.4)493.1 (487.5, 498.7)< 0.0001
 Total fat intake (g/d)29.2 (28.8, 29.6)38.1 (37.6, 38.6)44.5 (43.9, 45.1)57.8 (57.1, 58.6)< 0.0001
 Whole grain intake (g/d)6.6 (6.4, 6.9)11.2 (10.8, 11.6)13.8 (13.3, 14.3)17.2 (16.6, 17.8)< 0.0001
 Soy foods intake (g/d)11.8 (11.4, 12.2)20.7 (20.0, 21.4)26.3 (25.4, 27.2)33.4 (32.3, 34.6)< 0.0001
 Vegetables intake (g/d)149.2 (146.9, 151.6)217.1 (213.7, 220.6)271.0 (266.7, 275.3)367.5 (361.7, 373.4)< 0.0001
 Fruits intake (g/d)147.1 (144.3, 150.0)255.4 (250.5, 260.4)359.1 (352.1, 366.2)626.2 (614.1, 638.6)< 0.0001
 Nuts intake (g/d)3.2 (3.1, 3.3)5.0 (4.9, 5.2)6.5 (6.3, 6.7)8.2 (7.9, 8.4)< 0.0001
 Sweet foods intake (g/d)12.1 (11.6, 12.8)17.8 (16.9, 18.7)21.6 (20.5, 22.7)30.4 (28.9, 32.0)< 0.0001
 Red meat intake (g/d)15.9 (15.3, 16.6)19.3 (18.5, 20.1)20.2 (19.4, 21.0)20.6 (19.8, 21.4)< 0.0001
 White meat intake (g/d)12.1 (11.6, 12.6)14.0 (13.5, 14.6)16.0 (15.4, 16.7)17.8 (17.0, 18.5)< 0.0001
 DHA + EPA intake (g/d)2.9 (2.8, 3.0)3.4 (3.3, 3.5)3.8 (3.7, 3.9)4.7 (4.6, 4.8)< 0.0001
 Education (≥ College graduate, %)61.367.465.064.00.35
 Household income (≥ 10,000 Yuan, %)32.035.934.833.60.55
Smoking status (%)
 Smoker2.31.41.21.3< 0.01
 Ex-smoker0.80.60.70.70.94
 Non-smoker96.998.198.198.00.02
Drinker (%)
 Everyday0.40.60.81.0< 0.01
 Sometime42.340.039.537.4< 0.001
 Ex-drinker9.710.09.210.00.88
 Non-drinker47.649.450.651.6< 0.01
Employment status (%)
 Managers36.141.445.041.6< 0.0001
 Professionals12.513.611.913.20.89
 Other51.445.043.145.2< 0.0001
Family history of diseases (%)
 CVD30.729.229.327.5< 0.01
 Hypertension50.649.449.848.00.06
 Diabetes26.626.726.222.4< 0.0001
  1. a NAFLD Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, CVD Cardiovascular disease, BMI Body mass index, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid
  2. b Analysis of variance or logistic regression
  3. c Least square mean (95% confidence interval) (all such values)