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Table 2 Associations between total dietary fibre intake and NAFLD by sex a

From: Insoluble dietary fibre intake is associated with lower prevalence of newly-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese men: a large population-based cross-sectional study

 Categories of dietary fibre intakeP for trend b
All participants (n = 23,529)Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 
No. of participants5883588258815883 
No. of participants with NAFLD1141108710961102 
Crude modelRef0.94 (0.86, 1.03) b0.95 (0.87, 1.04)0.96 (0.87, 1.05)0.42
Adjusted model 1 dRef0.97 (0.87, 1.09)0.89 (0.79, 1.00)0.91 (0.81, 1.02)0.04
Adjusted model 2 eRef0.94 (0.82, 1.07)0.82 (0.70, 0.95)0.81 (0.67, 0.97)< 0.01
Men (n = 10,998)Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 
Intake of dietary fibre (range, g/d)0.839, 17.41717.420, 24.13424.135, 33.69233.697, 173.414 
No. of participants2750274927492750 
No. of participants with NAFLD828779770783 
Crude modelRef0.92 (0.82, 1.03)0.90 (0.80, 1.02)0.92 (0.82, 1.04)0.24
Adjusted model 1 dRef0.96 (0.84, 1.01)0.83 (0.72, 0.96)0.86 (0.75, 0.99)0.01
Adjusted model 2 eRef0.93 (0.79, 1.01)0.78 (0.65, 0.94)0.78 (0.62, 0.99)0.01
Women (n = 12,531)Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 
Intake of dietary fibre (range, g/d)0.400, 16.16116.164, 22.28422.287, 30.76030.764, 193.433 
No. of participants3133313331323133 
No. of participants with NAFLD313308326319 
Crude modelRef0.98 (0.83, 1.16)1.05 (0.89, 1.23)1.02 (0.87, 1.20)0.65
Adjusted model 1 dRef0.95 (0.77, 1.16)0.95 (0.77, 1.16)0.96 (0.79, 1.17)0.76
Adjusted model 2 eRef0.94 (0.74, 1.19)0.88 (0.68, 1.15)0.85 (0.62, 1.17)0.32
  1. a NAFLD Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, CVD Cardiovascular disease, BMI Body mass index, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid
  2. b Multiple logistic regression analysis
  3. c Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) (all such values)
  4. d Adjusted for age, sex (only for all participants), and BMI
  5. e Adjusted for age, sex (only for all participants), BMI, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, physical activity, educational level, household income, smoking status, drinking status, employment status, energy intake (kcal/d), total carbohydrate intake (g/d), total fat intake (g/d), sweet foods intake (g/d), red meat intake (g/d), white meat intake (g/d), DHA + EPA intake (g/d), and family history of CVD, hypertension, and diabetes