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Table 2 Chronic effects of beetroot on blood pressure and vascular function

From: Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases

AuthorStudy populationStudy DesignSample SizeDuration (days)Dose of beetroot and its corresponding NO3 contentFindings
Shepherd et al. [17]COPD PatientsRandomized, double blind, placebo controlled132.5Consumption of 70 ml of beetroot juice (~ 430 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice twice a dayNo effect on DBP or SBP
Keen et al. [18]Healthy non-smokersRandomized, double blind, placebo controlled63Daily consumption of 70 ml of beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3)↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ DBP
Kelly et al. [19]Healthy adultsRandomized, double blind, cross-over203Daily consumption of 140 ml of beetroot juice (~ 595 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Bailey et al. [20]Healthy adultsRandomized, double blind, cross-over96Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 520 mg NO3) vs. no intervention↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Bailey et al. [21]Normotensive menDouble-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled86Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~ 690 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant Juice↓ SBP
Bailey et al. [21]Healthy active menRandomized, double blind, cross-over96Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~ 320 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant Juice↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Cermak et al. [22]Normotensive menDouble-blind, repeated-measures cross-over206Daily consumption of 140 ml of beetroot juice (~ 490 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on DBP or SBP
Lansley et al. [23]Healthy active menRandomized, double blind, cross-over96Daily consumption of 500 ml of beetroot juice (~ 3 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ SBP, no effect on DBP or arterial BP
Bailey et al. [24]Healthy smokers and healthy non-smokersDouble-blind, cross-over176Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 520 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice (~  5 mg NO3)↓ SBP in non-smokers
Lara et al. [25]Overweight and obese adultsrandomized, non-blinded Parallel design,307Daily consumption of 70 mL beetroot juice (~ 600 mg NO3) vs. no interventionNo effect on resting or ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity or arterial distensibility, no change in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)
Bondonno et al. [26]Hypertensive adultsrandomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, cross-over277Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 420 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on BP
Kerley et al. [27]Controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patientsUncontrolled, pilot1914140 ml beetroot juice (~  800 mg NO3)↓ DBP and ↓arterial stiffness in uncontrolled patients
Gilchrist et al. [28]Type 2 diabetic patientsRandomized double blind, placebo-controlled crossover2714Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 500 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on BP or macro- or microvascular endothelial function
Asgary et al. [29]Hypertensive un-treated adultsRandomized, single-blind, crossover2414Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice vs. 250 g cooked beetroot↓ SBP and DBP, ↑ flow mediated dilation
↓ Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ↓ E-selectin
Vanhatalo et al. [30]Healthy subjectsRandomized, assessor-blind, crossover815Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~  322 mg NO3) vs. 500 mL low-calorie juice↓ SBP and mean arterial blood pressure
Jajja et al. [31]Overweight older adultsParallel, randomized clinical2421Daily consumption of 70 mL of concentrated beetroot juice (~ 300–400 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant juice (~ 2.7 mg NO3)No effect on resting clinic BP or 24-h ambulatory, ↓ home-monitoring daily SBP
Kapil et al. [32]Hypertensive older adultsRandomized, phase2, double-blind, placebo- controlled study6828Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ BP, improve endothelial function, ↓ arterial stiffness
Velmurugan et al. [33]Subjects with hypercholesterolemiaRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel6942Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 370 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ SBP
↑ Flow mediated dilation, ↓pulse wave velocity, ↓ augmentation index
↓ Platelet-monocyte aggregates
↓ P-selectin expression
  1. NO Nitric Oxide, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure