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Table 2 Chronic effects of beetroot on blood pressure and vascular function

From: Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases

Author Study population Study Design Sample Size Duration (days) Dose of beetroot and its corresponding NO3 content Findings
Shepherd et al. [17] COPD Patients Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled 13 2.5 Consumption of 70 ml of beetroot juice (~ 430 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice twice a day No effect on DBP or SBP
Keen et al. [18] Healthy non-smokers Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled 6 3 Daily consumption of 70 ml of beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3) ↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ DBP
Kelly et al. [19] Healthy adults Randomized, double blind, cross-over 20 3 Daily consumption of 140 ml of beetroot juice (~ 595 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice ↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Bailey et al. [20] Healthy adults Randomized, double blind, cross-over 9 6 Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 520 mg NO3) vs. no intervention ↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Bailey et al. [21] Normotensive men Double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled 8 6 Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~ 690 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant Juice ↓ SBP
Bailey et al. [21] Healthy active men Randomized, double blind, cross-over 9 6 Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~ 320 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant Juice ↓ Mean arterial BP, ↓ SBP and DBP
Cermak et al. [22] Normotensive men Double-blind, repeated-measures cross-over 20 6 Daily consumption of 140 ml of beetroot juice (~ 490 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on DBP or SBP
Lansley et al. [23] Healthy active men Randomized, double blind, cross-over 9 6 Daily consumption of 500 ml of beetroot juice (~ 3 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice ↓ SBP, no effect on DBP or arterial BP
Bailey et al. [24] Healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers Double-blind, cross-over 17 6 Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 520 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice (~  5 mg NO3) ↓ SBP in non-smokers
Lara et al. [25] Overweight and obese adults randomized, non-blinded Parallel design, 30 7 Daily consumption of 70 mL beetroot juice (~ 600 mg NO3) vs. no intervention No effect on resting or ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity or arterial distensibility, no change in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)
Bondonno et al. [26] Hypertensive adults randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, cross-over 27 7 Daily consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 420 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on BP
Kerley et al. [27] Controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients Uncontrolled, pilot 19 14 140 ml beetroot juice (~  800 mg NO3) ↓ DBP and ↓arterial stiffness in uncontrolled patients
Gilchrist et al. [28] Type 2 diabetic patients Randomized double blind, placebo-controlled crossover 27 14 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 500 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on BP or macro- or microvascular endothelial function
Asgary et al. [29] Hypertensive un-treated adults Randomized, single-blind, crossover 24 14 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice vs. 250 g cooked beetroot ↓ SBP and DBP, ↑ flow mediated dilation
↓ Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ↓ E-selectin
Vanhatalo et al. [30] Healthy subjects Randomized, assessor-blind, crossover 8 15 Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~  322 mg NO3) vs. 500 mL low-calorie juice ↓ SBP and mean arterial blood pressure
Jajja et al. [31] Overweight older adults Parallel, randomized clinical 24 21 Daily consumption of 70 mL of concentrated beetroot juice (~ 300–400 mg NO3) vs. blackcurrant juice (~ 2.7 mg NO3) No effect on resting clinic BP or 24-h ambulatory, ↓ home-monitoring daily SBP
Kapil et al. [32] Hypertensive older adults Randomized, phase2, double-blind, placebo- controlled study 68 28 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice ↓ BP, improve endothelial function, ↓ arterial stiffness
Velmurugan et al. [33] Subjects with hypercholesterolemia Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel 69 42 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 370 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice ↓ SBP
↑ Flow mediated dilation, ↓pulse wave velocity, ↓ augmentation index
↓ Platelet-monocyte aggregates
↓ P-selectin expression
  1. NO Nitric Oxide, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure