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Table 3 Acute effects of beetroot on blood pressure and vascular function

From: Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases

AuthorStudy populationStudy DesignSample sizeDose of beetroot and its corresponding NO3 contentFindings
Webb et al. [14]Healthy subjectsRandomized, open-label crossover14Consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~ 1395 mg NO3)↓ Both SBP and DBP
Joris et al. [34]Overweight and obese menRandomized crossover20Consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 420 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceImprove postprandial endothelial function
Hobbs et al. [35]Healthy adultsRandomized, open-label,
controlled crossover
23Daily consumption of 200 g beetroot bread (contains 100 g beetroot ~ 70 mg NO3) vs. 200 g white bread (< 0.6 mg NO3)↑ Endothelium-independent vasodilation
↓ DBP
Hobbs et al. [36]Healthy adultsRandomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over32Consumption of 500 g low-NO3 (< 3.1 mg NO3) mineral water (as control), 100 g beetroot juice+ 400 g water (~ 142 mg NO3), 250 g beetroot juice+ 250 g water (~ 465 mg NO3) or 500 g beetroot juice (~ 706 mg NO3)↓ Both SBP and DBP in a dose-dependent manner
Hobbs et al. [36]Healthy adultsRandomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over32Consumption of 200 g red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (contains 100 g red- or white-beetroot ~  112 and 99 mg NO3, respectively) vs. white bread (< 3.1 mg NO3)↓ SBP and DBP
Hughes et al. [37]Healthy young and old adultsRandomized, controlled, double-blind, cross-over26Consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~  583 mg NO3)↓ Peripheral and aortic BP in both young and older adults
↓ Aortic wave reflection (assessed by aortic augmentation index) only in young adults
Vanhatalo et al. [30]Healthy adultsRandomized, controlled, double-blind, cross-over8Consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice (~  322 mg NO3) vs. 500 mL low-calorie juice↓ SBP and DBP
Kapil et al. [38]Healthy adultsRandomized, double-blind, cross-over35Consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 340 mg NO3) vs. 250 mL water↓ SBP, prevented endothelial dysfunction caused by ischemia reperfusion
Kemmner et al. [39]patients with chronic kidney diseaseRandomized open-label cross-over17Consumption of 30 g beetroot powder dispended in 200 mL tap water (~ 300 mg NO3) vs. 200 mL tap water↓ Both SBP and DBP, ↓ arterial BP, ↓ renal resistive index
Ghosh et al. [40]Hypertensive adultsRandomized open-label crossover30Consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 217 mg NO3) vs. 250 mL low NO3 water (< 4.3 mg NO3)↓ Both SBP and DBP, ↓pulse wave velocity
↑ Erythrocytic XOR expression and XOR-dependent NO2 reductase activity
Velmurugan et al. [33]patients with hypercholesterolemiaRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled69Consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 370 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ SBP
↑ Flow mediated dilation, ↓pulse wave velocity, ↓ augmentation index
Berry et al. [41]COPD patientsRandomized, single-blind, crossover15Consumption of 140 ml beetroot juice (~  480 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice (< 1 mg NO3)↓ Resting SBP and DBP
Coles et al. [42]Healthy adultsRndomized double-blind,, placebo-controlled, crossover30Consumption of 140 ml beetroot juice (~  465 mg NO3) vs. apple juice↓ SBP in men
Curtis et al. [43]COPD patientsRandomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose21Consumption of 140 ml beetroot juice (~  800 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice↓ Resting DBP
  1. NO Nitric Oxide, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease