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Table 4 Effects of beetroot on glucose-insulin homeostasis, lipid profiles and oxidative stress

From: Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases

AuthorStudy populationStudy designSample sizeDuration (days)Dose of beetroot and NO3Findings
Shepherd et al. [81]Healthy young and old adultsRandomized double- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over31Consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 738 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on plasma glucose, C-peptide, or incretin concentration
Fuchs et al. [82]Obese, insulin-resistant patientsRandomized double- blind, controlled16Consumption of 100 mL beetroot juice (~ 300 mg NO3) vs. waterNo effect on postprandial glucose and insulin response
Wootton-Beard et al. [48]Healthy adultsRandomized single- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over16Consumption of 225 mL beetroot juice (~ 990 mg NO3) vs. control beverage matched for macronutrient content↓ Postprandial insulin response in the early phase (0–60 min)
↓ Glucose response in the 0–30 min phase
Gilchrist et al. [28]T2DM patientsRandomized double- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over2714Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 500 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on insulin resistance
Kerley et al. [27]Controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patientsPilot study1914Daily consumption of 140 ml beetroot juice (~  800 mg NO3)↓ Serum LDL-C in uncontrolled patients
Asgary et al. [29]Hypertensive un-treated adultsRandomized crossover pilot study2414Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice vs. 250 g cooked beetrootNo effect on blood glucose
↓ Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α
↑ TAC in beetroot juice group
↓ Non-HDL-C, total cholesterol and LDL-C in beetroot juice group
Singh et al. [80]Healthy adultsRandomized, cross- over3015Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice↑ HDL-C, ↓ LDL-C, ↑ Total antioxidant capacity and serum vitamin C levels
Kapil et al. [32]Hypertensive older adultsRandomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study6828Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium, or lipid profile
Velmurugan et al. [33]patients with hypercholesterolemiaRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled6942Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 370 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juiceNo effect on oxidized LDL, hs-CRP, and uric acid
  1. NO Nitric Oxide, T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, IL-6 Interleukin-6, TNF-α Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, HDL-C High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein- Cholesterol