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Table 4 Effects of beetroot on glucose-insulin homeostasis, lipid profiles and oxidative stress

From: Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases

Author Study population Study design Sample size Duration (days) Dose of beetroot and NO3 Findings
Shepherd et al. [81] Healthy young and old adults Randomized double- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over 31 Consumption of 140 mL beetroot juice (~ 738 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on plasma glucose, C-peptide, or incretin concentration
Fuchs et al. [82] Obese, insulin-resistant patients Randomized double- blind, controlled 16 Consumption of 100 mL beetroot juice (~ 300 mg NO3) vs. water No effect on postprandial glucose and insulin response
Wootton-Beard et al. [48] Healthy adults Randomized single- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over 16 Consumption of 225 mL beetroot juice (~ 990 mg NO3) vs. control beverage matched for macronutrient content ↓ Postprandial insulin response in the early phase (0–60 min)
↓ Glucose response in the 0–30 min phase
Gilchrist et al. [28] T2DM patients Randomized double- blind, placebo controlled, cross- over 27 14 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 500 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on insulin resistance
Kerley et al. [27] Controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients Pilot study 19 14 Daily consumption of 140 ml beetroot juice (~  800 mg NO3) ↓ Serum LDL-C in uncontrolled patients
Asgary et al. [29] Hypertensive un-treated adults Randomized crossover pilot study 24 14 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice vs. 250 g cooked beetroot No effect on blood glucose
↓ Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α
↑ TAC in beetroot juice group
↓ Non-HDL-C, total cholesterol and LDL-C in beetroot juice group
Singh et al. [80] Healthy adults Randomized, cross- over 30 15 Daily consumption of 500 mL beetroot juice ↑ HDL-C, ↓ LDL-C, ↑ Total antioxidant capacity and serum vitamin C levels
Kapil et al. [32] Hypertensive older adults Randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 68 28 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 450 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium, or lipid profile
Velmurugan et al. [33] patients with hypercholesterolemia Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 69 42 Daily consumption of 250 mL beetroot juice (~ 370 mg NO3) vs. NO3-depleted beetroot juice No effect on oxidized LDL, hs-CRP, and uric acid
  1. NO Nitric Oxide, T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, IL-6 Interleukin-6, TNF-α Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, HDL-C High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein- Cholesterol