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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of GDM cases and matched controls

From: Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 in the first and second trimester and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women: a nested case-control study

 GDMControlP
Age, year29 (28–33)29 (28–33)1.00
Education> 12 years, n (%)110 (81.5)107 (79.3)0.55
Employed, n (%)104 (77.0)109 (80.7)0.46
Gweek at enrollment10 (9–12)10 (9–12)0.36
Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m222.2 (20.3–25.1)22.0 (19.9–24.8)0.45
GWG before OGTT, kg8.6 (6.2–11.0)8.6 (6.4–10.5)0.56
Weekly PA time, MET-min week−1693 (238–1386)693 (198–1386)0.78
Daily intake of calories, kcal/d1272 (1031–1630)1242 (936–1683)0.70
SBP, mmHg108 (101–116)110 (102–119)0.43
DBP, mmHg67 (62–73)67 (61–72)0.66
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.0 (3.6–4.4)3.9 (3.6–4.4)0.84
Triglyceride, mmol/L1.2 (0.9–1.4)1.0 (0.9–1.3)0.07
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.7 (1.4–1.9)1.8 (1.5–1.9)0.26
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.2 (1.9–2.7)2.3 (1.9–2.6)0.79
GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2168.6 (151.9–182.6)172.6 (155.1–191.1)0.28
ALT, U/L13 (10–23)12 (10–19)0.33
AST, U/L14 (13–18)15 (13–17)0.92
RBP4 in the 1st trimester, μg/L18.0 (10.2–31.6)14.4 (9.6–21.8)0.04
RBP4 in the 2nd trimester, μg/L18.0 (11.3–29.1)15.4 (9.6–21.8)0.08
  1. Abbreviations: GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, Gweek Gestational week, BMI Body mass index, GWG Gestational weight gain, OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test, PA Physical activity, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, GFR Glomerular filtration rate, ALT Alanine transaminase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, RBP4 Retinol-binding protein 4