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Table 2 Survival outcomes by sex-specific tertiles of serum choline and betaine levels

From: Serum choline is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma survival: a prospective cohort study

 T1T2T3P-trend
Liver cancer-specific survival
 Serum choline
  Deaths / Total cases87 / 29084 / 28999 / 287 
  Person-days at risk122,905143,328202,856 
   Model 1-adjusted HR (95% CI) a1.000.83 (0.61–1.13)0.73 (0.55–0.99)0.04
   Model 2-adjusted HR (95% CI) b1.000.84 (0.62–1.15)0.69 (0.51–0.94)0.02
 Serum betaine
  Deaths / Total cases90 / 28894 / 29086 / 288 
  Person-days at risk149,722156,715162,652 
   Model 1-adjusted HR (95% CI) a1.000.94 (0.70–1.26)0.85 (0.63–1.15)0.29
   Model 2-adjusted HR (95% CI) b1.000.97 (0.72–1.31)0.84 (0.62–1.13)0.25
Overall survival
 Serum choline
  Deaths / Total cases90 / 29091 / 289110 / 287 
  Person-days at risk122,905143,328202,856 
   Model 1-adjusted HR (95% CI) a1.000.85 (0.63–1.14)0.78 (0.58–1.05)0.11
   Model 2-adjusted HR (95% CI) b1.000.85 (0.62–1.15)0.73 (0.54–0.99)0.04
 Serum betaine
  Deaths / Total cases97 / 28899 / 29095 / 288 
  Person-days at risk149,722156,715162,652 
   Model 1-adjusted HR (95% CI) a1.000.93 (0.70–1.24)0.88 (0.66–1.17)0.39
   Model 2-adjusted HR (95% CI) b1.000.95 (0.72–1.27)0.84 (0.63–1.13)0.25
  1. a Covariates adjusted in Model 1: age, sex, BMI, education level, smoking status
  2. b Covariates adjusted in Model 2: covariates adjusted in Model 1, additionally adjusted for baseline liver damage level, BCLC stage, treatment, AFP level and CRP level