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Table 1 Characteristics of study adolescents and their parents recruited from three southern states of Peninsular Malaysia

From: Associations of an empirical dietary pattern with cardiometabolic risk factors in Malaysian adolescents

Characteristics n (%) p-value
Male
(n = 300)
Female
(n = 633)
Total
School location
 Urban 147 (49.0) 287 (45.3) 434 (46.5) 0.29
 Rural 153 (51.0) 346 (54.7) 499 (53.5)  
School size
 Small (≤100 students) 19 (6.3) 39 (6.2) 58 (6.2) 0.93
 Medium (101–199 students) 109 (36.3) 238 (37.6) 347 (37.2)  
 Large (≥200 students) 172 (57.3) 356 (56.2) 528 (56.6)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 262 (87.3) 552 (87.2) 814 (87.2) 0.95
 Chinese 21 (7.0) 42 (6.6) 63 (6.8)  
 Indian 14 (4.7) 30 (4.7) 44 (4.7)  
 Others 3 (1.0) 9 (1.4) 12 (1.3)  
Parental Income, n = 599a
 Below median 159 (88.3) 372 (88.8) 531 (88.6) 0.89
 Above median 21 (11.7) 47 (11.2) 68 (11.4)  
Educational level of mother, n = 818
 No formal education/Primary 23 (9.5) 68 (11.8) 91 (11.1) 0.58
 Secondary school 179 (74.3) 425 (73.7) 604 (73.8)  
 Higher institution 39 (16.2) 84 (14.6) 123 (15.0)  
Physical activity total score, n = 793 2.77 (±0.72) 2.40 (±0.57) 2.52 (±0.64) < 0.001
‘High sugar, high fibre, high DED and low fat’ DP z-score, n = 583 −0.15 (±1.14) 0.06 (±1.40) 0.00 (±1.33) 0.08
  1. aMedian monthly household income (RM 5, 228) based on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey 2016. p < 0.05 considered significant. DED Dietary Energy Density, DP Dietary Pattern