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Table 2 Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of adolescents aged 13 years recruited from three southern states of Peninsular Malaysia

From: Associations of an empirical dietary pattern with cardiometabolic risk factors in Malaysian adolescents

Characteristics Male Female Total
Mean (SD)
p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Height (cm), n = 930 155.4 (±8.5) 153.0 (±5.9) 153.8 (±6.9) < 0.001
Weight (kg), n = 930 49.8 (±14.6) 48.6 (±13.1) 49.0 (±13.6) 0.20
BMI (kg/m2), n = 930 20.5 (±5.3) 20.6 (±5.0) 20.6 (±5.1) 0.65
BMI z-score, n = 930 0.37 (±1.57) 0.26 (±1.48) 0.29 (±1.51) 0.30
WC (cm), n = 929 66.7 (±13.5) 65.0 (±10.8) 65.5 (±11.7) 0.05
WC z-score, n = 929 0.10 (±1.15) −0.05 (±0.92) 0.00 (±1.00) 0.03
Fasting Blood Glucose (mmol/L), n = 507 4.93 (±0.39) 4.83 (±0.42) 4.86 (±0.42) 0.02
Total cholesterol (mmol/L), n = 507 4.36 (±0.72) 4.71 (±0.79) 4.60 (±0.79) < 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L), n = 507 1.48 (±0.32) 1.58 (±0.32) 1.55 (±0.33) 0.003
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L), n = 507 2.47 (±0.63) 2.73 (±0.70) 2.65 (±0.69) < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L), n = 507 0.88 (±0.54) 0.89 (±0.38) 0.89 (±0.44) 0.78
Serum insulin (uIU/mL), n = 507 14.14 (±9.07) 13.96 (±8.08) 14.02 (±8.38) 0.83
HOMA-IR (unit), n = 507 3.14 (±2.20) 3.03 (±1.83) 3.06 (±1.95) 0.55
  n (%) n (%) n (%) p-value
Overweight/obesity, n = 930 103 (34.6) 198 (31.4) 301 (32.4) 0.11
Abdominal obesity, n = 929 35 (11.8) 73 (11.6) 108 (11.6) 0.92
Dyslipidaemia, n = 507 22 (14.3) 99 (28.0) 121 (23.9) 0.001a
Plausible dietary reporter, n = 585 54 (31.4) 117 (28.5) 171 (29.2) 0.11
  1. aFisher’s exact test. Overweight and obesity were defined using BMI z-scores of more than one and two standard deviations above the WHO growth standard median, respectively. WC z-score was computed and abdominal obesity was defined according to the Malaysian WC centile curves of equal or more than the 90th centiles [28]. Dyslipidaemia during childhood and adolescence was determined when the level of total cholesterol was greater than or equal to 5.2 mmol/L or their LDL-C level was greater than or equal to 3.4 mmol/L [30]. Plausible dietary reporter was adolescents with the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate between 1.09 to 2.21 estimated using the Goldberg equation [22]. BMI Body Mass Index, WC Waist Circumference, HDL-C High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance