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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in cases of acute coronary syndrome and controls

From: Circulating metabolites from the choline pathway and acute coronary syndromes in a Chinese case-control study

CharacteristicsTotal (n = 501)Cases (n = 254)Controls (n = 247)p value
Age, mean (SD), year62.92 ± 10.8463.07 ± 11.0262.77 ± 10.690.54
Sex male, No. (%)430(85.8%)217(85.4%)213(86.2%)0.90
Current smokers, No. (%)163(32.5%)110(43.3%)53(21.5%)< 0.001
Hypertension, No. (%)296(59.1%)149(58.7%)147(59.5%)0.92
Diabetes mellitus, No. (%)104(20.8%)71(28.0%)33(13.4%)< 0.001
Hyperlipidaemia, No. (%)13(2.6%)5(2.0%)8(3.2%)0.54
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m225.06 ± 3.3324.73 ± 3.5325.41 ± 3.080.02
Smoking Index, mean (SD), pack-years15.13 ± 25.2117.96 ± 26.3712.22 ± 23.73< 0.001
eGFR, mean (SD), ml/min/1.73m282.36 ± 19.9080.76 ± 20.7984.01 ± 18.880.07
Gensini Score, mean (SD)39.88 ± 52.0176.73 ± 50.831.99 ± 2.90< 0.001
Betaine, mean (SD), μmol/L40.07 ± 15.9441.74 ± 17.8738.36 ± 13.550.02
Choline, mean (SD), μmol/L47.93 ± 33.2657.04 ± 34.7038.55 ± 28.99< 0.001
TMA, mean (SD), μmol/L4.10 ± 2.994.27 ± 3.303.93 ± 2.630.20
TMAO, mean (SD), μmol/L1.92 ± 2.081.84 ± 2.211.99 ± 1.950.42
Choline metabolite score, mean (SD)34.58 ± 21.3340.21 ± 22.3928.78 ± 18.56< 0.001
Ratio of betaine/choline, mean (SD), μmol/L1.03 ± 0.440.89 ± 0.431.18 ± 0.40< 0.05
  1. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, TMA trimethylamine, TMAO trimethylamine N-oxide
  2. Choline metabolite score was applied by a weighted sum of concentrations of four metabolites in the choline pathway (betaine, choline, TMA and TMAO)