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Table 2 Odds of acute coronary syndrome by circulating concentration of choline pathway metabolites

From: Circulating metabolites from the choline pathway and acute coronary syndromes in a Chinese case-control study

VariableOdds Ratio (95% CI) for Quartiles of Metabolites ConcentrationP for trendOdds Ratio (95% CI) per 1-SD increment
1234
Betaine
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases59455397
 Model 1 aRef.0.69 (0.40–1.18)0.84 (0.50–1.43)1.43 (0.87–2.34)0.071.11(0.93–1.33)
 Model 2 bRef.0.62 (0.35–1.07)0.76 (0.44–1.31)1.43 (0.87–2.36)0.071.12(0.93–1.35)
 Model 3 cRef.0.63 (0.36–1.09)0.78 (0.45–1.34)1.41 (0.85–2.34)0.081.12(0.93–1.34)
Choline
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases352827164
 Model 1 aRef.0.82 (0.44–1.53)0.70 (0.37–1.31)4.36 (2.61–7.38)< 0.0011.85(1.52–2.28)
 Model 2 bRef.0.79 (0.42–1.47)0.58 (0.30–1.11)3.91 (2.33–6.65)< 0.0011.79(1.47–2.21)
 Model 3 cRef.0.73 (0.39–1.39)0.55 (0.29–1.06)3.72 (2.21–6.34)< 0.0011.77(1.44–2.18)
TMA
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases70495976
 Model 1 aRef.1.41 (0.85–2.34)0.94 (0.56–1.58)0.67 (0.39–1.15)0.021.11(0.92–1.34)
 Model 2 bRef.1.53 (0.92–2.57)1.09 (0.64–1.85)0.76 (0.44–1.32)0.071.05(0.87–1.27)
 Model 3 cRef.1.71 (1.01–2.91)1.26 (0.73–2.17)0.80 (0.46–1.40)0.091.10(0.90–1.33)
TMAO
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases85624265
 Model 1 aRef.0.79 (0.47–1.35)0.95 (0.57–1.60)1.25 (0.75–2.08)0.370.87(0.72–1.05)
 Model 2 bRef.0.70 (0.40–1.20)0.91 (0.54–1.53)1.01 (0.60–1.70)0.760.84(0.69–1.02)
 Model 3 cRef.0.71 (0.41–1.23)0.94 (0.56–1.59)1.09 (0.64–1.85)0.560.80(0.65–0.97)
Metabolite Score
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases412659128
 Model 1 aRef.1.10(0.60–2.03)1.65(0.93–2.97)3.65(2.14–6.32)< 0.0011.96(1.49–2.59)
 Model 2 bRef.1.00(0.54–1.86)1.39(0.77–2.52)3.26(1.90–5.67)< 0.0011.85(1.40–2.45)
 Model 3 cRef.1.00(0.54–1.86)1.35(0.75–2.46)3.18(1.85–5.54)< 0.0011.80(1.37–2.40)
Betaine/choline ratio
 No. of controls62626162
 No. of cases160392431
 Model 1 aRef.0.23(0.14–0.39)0.16(0.09–0.29)0.19(0.11–0.31)< 0.0010.46(0.37–0.57)
 Model 2 bRef.0.24(0.14–0.39)0.17(0.09–0.30)0.20(0.12–0.35)< 0.0010.48(0.39–0.59)
 Model 3 cRef.0.24(0.14–0.41)0.17(0.09–0.30)0.21(0.12–0.36)< 0.0010.49(0.39–0.60)
  1. The inverse normal transformation was applied to the raw values of metabolites. To build the score, we applied a weighted sum of concentrations of 4 metabolites in the choline pathway (betaine, choline, TMA, and TMAO). The ratio of betaine/choline was calculated by dividing the raw values and then applying the inverse normal transformations
  2. TMA trimethylamine, TMAO trimethylamine N-oxide. Ref., i.e., reference group, and we used participants assigned to the first quartile of the concentrations of each metabolite, the metabolite score and betaine to choline ratio, as the reference group in each model
  3. a in model 1, odds ratio was adjusted for age, sex, smoking index and body mass index;
  4. b in model 2, odds ratio was adjusted for all factors in model 1, plus history of the disease (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia);
  5. c in model 3, odds ratio was adjusted for all factors in model 2, plus kidney function measured by eGFR