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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study participants according to BMI and metabolic status in 2017

From: Effect of metabolically healthy obesity on the development of arterial stiffness: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics MHNO MUNO MHO MUO P
N 1187 144 495 250
Gender (M/F) 600/587 81/63 331/164 175/75 < 0.001
Age (years) 44.0 (41.0–46.0) 45.0 (42.0–46.0) 44.0 (41.0–46.0) 44.0 (41.0–46.0) 0.069
BMI (kg/m2) 22.4 (20.9–23.6) 23.5 (22.3–24.3) 26.6 (25.7–28.1) 27.4 (26.2–29.1) < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 79.8 (75.2–84.2) 83.8 (78.9–87.3) 93.0 (88.9–96.9) 95.5 (90.9–100.1) < 0.001
Current smoking (%) 450 (37.9) 64 (44.4) 70 (14.1) 77 (30.7) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption (%) 294 (24.8) 42 (29.2) 16 (3.2) 18 (7.2) < 0.001
Hypertension (n, %) 57 (4.8) 32 (22.2) 83 (16.8) 47 (18.7) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 12 (1.0) 15 (10.4) 254 (51.3) 135 (53.8) < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia (n, %) 51 (4.3) 12 (8.3) 190 (38.4) 91 (36.3) < 0.001
Heart rate (beats/min) 72.0 (66.0–80.0) 76.0 (69.0–85.0) 73.0 (67.0–78.0) 74.0 (68.0–80.3) < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 116.3 (108.9–124.3) 133.3 (129.7–139.3) 122.0 (115.7–129.0) 137.7 (131.7–150.0) < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 72.3 (66.3–79.0) 85.3 (79.3–90.0) 77.0 (71.7–83.3) 88.8 (84.0–95.7) < 0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.48 (4.22–4.77) 4.76 (4.33–5.60) 4.62 (4.32–4.92) 4.85 (4.46–5.62) < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.46 (4.00–4.94) 4.34 (4.00–4.90) 4.62 (4.11–5.23) 4.56 (4.14–5.05) < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.14 (0.85–1.55) 1.65 (1.15–2.36) 1.60 (1.12–2.21) 2.03 (1.59–2.90) < 0.001
LDL- cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.46 (2.07–2.81) 2.52 (2.12–2.78) 2.60 (2.26–3.10) 2.56 (2.17–2.97) < 0.001
HDL- cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.24 (1.08–1.43) 0.99 (0.90–1.13) 1.10 (1.00–1.24) 0.95 (0.86–1.03) < 0.001
SUA (μmol/L) 263.9 (214.5–312.4) 283.1 (234.5–333.1) 304.5 (248.7–362.6) 322.1 (267.8–370.2) < 0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 73.5 (65.3–83.9) 75.9 (66.4–86.8) 78.6 (69.0–87.4) 80.8 (71.3–90.2) < 0.001
Urine albumin (mg/L) 6.30 (3.30–11.3) 9.10 (4.90–16.3) 8.15 (4.78–15.7) 11.9 (6.55–29.3) < 0.001
uACR (mg/mmol) 0.87 (0.60–1.41) 1.18 (0.70–2.52) 1.04 (0.69–1.85) 1.57 (0.84–3.53) < 0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 99.07 (88.01–111.83) 94.71 (86.40–109.76) 96.22 (85.84–108.18) 93.96 (83.80–106.06) < 0.001
cIMT (mm) 0.60 (0.50–0.72) 0.65 (0.55–0.75) 0.63 (0.55–0.75) 0.65 (0.55–0.75) < 0.001
baPWV (cm) 1173.8 (1061.0–1297.8) 1366.8 (1257.3–1486.0) 1205.5 (1089.5–1366.5) 1402.3 (1265.8–1596.1) < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, MHNO metabolically healthy nonobesity, MUNO metabolically unhealthy nonobesity, MHO metabolically healthy obesity, MUO metabolically unhealthy obesity, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, SUA serum uric acid, uACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, cIMT carotid intima-media thickness, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Non-normally distributed variables are expressed as the median (interquartile range). All other values are expressed as mean ± SD or n, %