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Table 2 Basic characteristics of the study subjects

From: Vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome in elderly Chinese individuals: evidence from CLHLS

Characteristics 25(OH)D status P-value
Sufficient(≥30 ng/ml)
n = 574
Insufficiency(20-30 ng/ml)
n = 890
Deficiency(< 20 ng/ml)
n = 1029
MetS[Modified ATP III(2009)] (%) 218 (39.1) 373 (42.9) 484 (48.6) < 0.01
MetS[Modified Criteria(2012)] (%) 241 (46.8) 422 (51.6) 506 (53.0) 0.07
MetS(CDS) (%) 124 (22.5) 214 (25.4) 295 (32.5) < 0.01
Age group(≥80 years old) (%) 291 (50.7) 502 (56.4) 766 (74.4) < 0.01
Female(%) 174 (30.3) 419 (47.1) 703 (68.3) < 0.01
Education(%)
 illiteracy 130 (40.8) 233 (48.6) 405 (63.0) < 0.01
 1-9 years 170 (53.3) 228 (47.6) 218 (33.9)  
  ≥ 10 years 19 (6.0) 18 (3.8) 20 (3.1)  
Nationality(han) (%) 432 (84.7) 698 (91.5) 858 (94.8) < 0.01
Married(%) 352 (61.5) 434 (48.9) 332 (32.4) < 0.01
Smoking (%) 135 (23.6) 147 (16.6) 152 (14.9) < 0.01
Drinking (%) 147 (25.8) 150 (17.0) 139 (13.6) < 0.01
Physically active (%) 532 (96.0) 818 (93.6) 910 (90.6) < 0.01
Elevated WHR (%) 391 (68.1) 650 (73.1) 792 (77.0) < 0.01
Elevated BMI (%) 190 (33.5) 298 (34.5) 292 (31.2) < 0.01
Elevated WC (%) 263 (45.8) 468 (52.6) 557 (54.1) < 0.01
Rural (%) 505 (96.7) 740 (95.4) 849 (92.9) < 0.01
Season(%)
 Spring(3–5) 7 (1.3) 15 (1.8) 14 (1.5) 0.09
 Summer(6–8) 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Autumn(9–11) 414 (76.0) 670 (78.3) 766 (81.5)  
 Winter(12–2) 123 (22.6) 171 (20.0) 160 (17.0)  
Age(years) 80.6 ± 10.1 83.7 ± 29.1 89 ± 27.4 < 0.01
Systolic blood pressure(mmHg) 149.5 ± 22.1 148.2 ± 23.3 148.3 ± 24.6 0.54
Diastolic blood pressure(mmHg) 83.3 ± 12.6 82.3 ± 12.4 81.4 ± 12.7 0.02
Fasting plasma glucose(mmol/L) 5.4 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 1.7 6.9 ± 4.3 < 0.01
Glycosylated serum protein (μmol/L) 255.1 ± 44.1 259.7 ± 37.8 246.9 ± 61.6 < 0.01
BMI(kg/m2) 22.5 ± 3.5 22.7 ± 3.8 22.5 ± 7.3 0.71
Triglyceride(mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 1.4 < 0.01
HDL cholesterol(mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 0.05
Total cholesterol(mmol/L) 4.7 ± 0.9 4.8 ± 1 4.8 ± 1 0.27
weight (Kg) 56.4 ± 11.7 54.8 ± 12.6 51.1 ± 12.6 < 0.01
Height(cm) 157.7 ± 10 154.9 ± 10.3 150.7 ± 11 < 0.01
Waist circumference(cm) 85.4 ± 9.9 85.7 ± 10.6 83.9 ± 11.2 < 0.01
WHR 0.92 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.07 0.93
  1. Notes: Data are mean ± SE
  2. 25(OH)D 25 hydroxy vitamin D, MetS(CDS) metabolic syndrome based on CDS; MetS[Modified ATP III (2009)], MetS(CDS), MetS [Modified ATP III (2009)], metabolic syndrome based on modified ATP III (2009); MetS[Modified Criteria (2012)], metabolic syndrome based on modified criteria (2012);WHR waist-hip ratio, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference(cm), HDL high density lipoprotein