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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants at baseline, midpoint and endpoint

From: Effects of resistance training on serum 25(OH) D concentrations in young men: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Resistance training (RT) group (n = 9) Non-exercise control (CON) group (n = 9) P
Baseline Midpoint Endpoint Baseline Midpoint Endpoint Time Group Time × Group interaction
Weight (kg)a 68.4 ± 3.1 68.6 ± 3.1 68.5 ± 3.0 68.8 ± 3.1 68.7 ± 3.1 68.6 ± 3.0 0.156 0.958 0.762
BMI (kg/m2)a 22.6 ± 0.9 22.6 ± 0.9 22.6 ± 0.8 22.3 ± 0.9 22.2 ± 0.9 22.2 ± 0.8 0.273 0.768 0.455
FFM (kg)a 52.5 ± 1.7 53.9 ± 1.8c 54.1 ± 1.8c 55.9 ± 1.7 56.1 ± 1.8 55.8 ± 1.8 0.347 0.341 0.004
Muscle mass (kg)a 49.7 ± 1.6 51.2 ± 1.7c 51.4 ± 1.7c 53.1 ± 1.6 53.2 ± 1.7 53.0 ± 1.7 0.399 0.348 0.003
Body fat percentagea 22.4 ± 2.0 20.6 ± 1.9 20.1 ± 2.0 18.3 ± 2.0 18.0 ± 1.9 18.3 ± 2.0 0.643 0.327 0.058
Arms fat percentagea 19.3 ± 1.8 17.9 ± 1.8 17.2 ± 1.7 13.7 ± 1.8 13.4 ± 1.8 13.6 ± 1.7 0.687 0.091 0.077
Legs fat percentagea 20.8 ± 1.7 19.3 ± 1.6 19.2 ± 1.7 17.7 ± 1.7 17.2 ± 1.6 17.6 ± 1.7 0.846 0.378 0.064
Trunk fat percentagea 25.7 ± 2.5 23.6 ± 2.4 22.8 ± 2.4 21.1 ± 2.5 20.8 ± 2.4 21.1 ± 2.4 0.484 0.397 0.075
BMD (g/cm2)a 1.16 ± 0.02 1.16 ± 0.02 1.17 ± 0.03 1.18 ± 0.02 1.18 ± 0.02 1.20 ± 0.03 0.016 0.538 0.235
25(OH) D (nmol/L)b 26.0 ± 1.8 29.2 ± 2.7 36.7 ± 2.7cd 27.2 ± 1.8 37.2 ± 2.7c 40.7 ± 2.7cd 0.807 0.261 0.025
iPTH (pg/mL)b 61.9 ± 8.3 58.7 ± 6.1 63.4 ± 5.6 37.6 ± 8.3 48.3 ± 6.1 51.5 ± 5.6 0.110 0.131 0.242
Sun exposure (min/day) 40.0± 9.8 76.5 ± 13.5 63.8 ± 15.2 50.0 ± 9.8 73.5 ± 13.5 50.5 ± 15.2 0.015 0.889 0.493
  1. Data are presented as the adjusted mean ± SE. BMI body mass index, FFM fat free mass, BMD bone mineral density, 25(OH) D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, iPTH intact parathyroid hormone. a Adjusted by age, MVPA. b Adjusted by age, MVPA, baseline test time, changes of sun exposure and body fat percent from pre to end. cChange is significantly different from the baseline value within a subgroup. d Change is significantly different from the endpoint to midpoint within a subgroup. Boldface indicates significance (P < 0.05)