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Table 3 Baseline and 8-week metabolic outcomes by diet group

From: Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial

  LFD VLCD P for diet P for diet adjusted for change in total fat
Week 0 Week 8 Week 0 Week 8   
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 103.4 ± 9.6 101.6 ± 10.6 106.0 ± 13.3 103.4 ± 9.8 0.98 0.65
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 15.6 ± 6.5 16.0 ± 8.2 13.7 ± 5.6 9.4 ± 4.0* 0.02 0.39
HOMA-IR 4.0 ± 1.6 4.1 ± 2.0 3.4 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 01.1** 0.02 0.42
SI Clamp (10−4.kg−1.min−1/(μU/ml) 1.8 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.4 1.7 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 1.7** 0.19 0.26
CRP (mg/l) 3.7 ± 3.7 5.3 ± 5.3 3.2 ± 2.3 5.3 ± 4.9 0.73 0.98
TNF-α (pg/ml) 1.8 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 0.9 0.71 0.50
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.6 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 1.1 0.21 0.13
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 185.5 ± 36.9 183.7 ± 43.0 186.6 ± 40.0 176.0 ± 41.2 0.36 0.83
LDL (mg/dl) 101.9 ± 26.2 103.8 ± 27.4 108.6 ± 34.0 98.4 ± 37.9 0.20 0.94
HDL (mg/dl) 56.0 ± 19.8 56.5 ± 19.4 53.9 ± 10.5 61.2 ± 10.4** 0.04 0.48
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 138.1 ± 47.3 117.2 ± 36.6* 121.1 ± 47.9 81.8 ± 22.9** < 0.01 0.18
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD
  2. p < 0.07, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, for paired t-test; P for effect of diet, results from ANCOVA (8-week outcome adjusted for baseline); P for the effect of diet, results from ANCOVA (8-week outcome adjusted for baseline and change in fat mass)
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