Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Higher toenail selenium is associated with increased insulin resistance risk in omnivores, but not in vegetarians

  Vegan
(n = 76)
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian (n = 144) Vegetarian
(n = 220)
Omnivore
(n = 220)
Age (y) 36.84 ± 8.51 35.49 ± 8.85 35.96 ± 8.73 35.23 ± 8.93
Female, % 77.63 84.03 81.82 81.82
Vegetarian duration (y) 5.79 ± 4.46 5.52 ± 5.33 5.61 ± 5.04
BMI (kg/m2) 20.72 ± 2.27 21.17 ± 2.67 21.02 ± 2.54* 22.53 ± 3.48
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.81 ± 0.05 0.81 ± 0.05 0.81 ± 0.05* 0 .84 ± 0 .05
No alcohol, % 98.68 93.75 95.45* 81.36
No smoking, % 86.84 90.97 89.55 90.45
Physical activity (min/wk) 151.97 ± 181.98 93.16 ± 108.48 113.48 ± 140.75* 82.86 ± 114.39
Income (Yuan/month), %
 < 3000 17.11 19.44 18.64* 25.45
 3000 ~ 5000 22.37 17.36 19.09* 20
 5000 ~ 8000 18.42 29.17 25.45* 24.10
 > 8000 42.10 34.03 36.82* 30.45
 Energy (Kcal/d) 1536.32 ± 541.52 1496.98 ± 503.67 1510.57 ± 516.17* 1792.88 ± 583.46
 Protein (g/d) 48.50 ± 23.94 44.48 ± 18.92 45.87 ± 20.83* 71.52 ± 31.64
 Fat (g/d) 39.49 ± 21.22 43.02 ± 21.31 41.80 ± 21.30* 68.14 ± 34.66
 Carbohydrate (g/d) 237.96 ± 90.39 227.55 ± 84.11 231.14 ± 86.26 217.14 ± 75.72
 Fiber (g/d) 19.36 ± 11.89 13.63 ± 7.56** 15.61 ± 9.65* 12.04 ± 7.12
 FG (mmol/L) 4.58 ± 0.29 4.66 ± 0 .80 4.63 ± 0.67* 4.82 ± 0.40
 FI (mU/L) 4.76 ± 2.67 4.96 ± 2.08 4.89 ± 2.30* 6.03 ± 3.11
 HOMA-IR 0.98 ± 0.56 1.05 ± 0.60 1.03 ± 0.59*(1) 1.30 ± 0.71
 HOMA-β (%) 91.26 ± 58.47 94.85 ± 42.97 93.61 ± 48.78 97.86 ± 62.42
 Insulin resistance (%) 1.32 1.39 1.36%* 5.45
 Dietary Se intake (μg/d) 25.28 ± 23.89 25.83 ± 15.03 25.64 ± 18.52* 55.14 ± 37.51
 Toenail Se (μg/g) 0.46 ± 0.11 0.56 ± 0.17** 0.53 ± 0.16*(1) 0.69 ± 0.53
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FG fasting blood glucose, FI fasting insulin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-β homeostasis model assessment of β cell function
  2. (1)Data were assessed with covariance controlling for age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, income, and daily dietary intakes (energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and fiber)
  3. *Statistical significance when comparing vegetarian and omnivore groups
  4. **Statistical significance when comparing vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian groups