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Table 1 Effects of propolis and it’s derivate on oxidative stress and inflammation in clinical trial studies

From: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the effects of Propolis in inflammation, oxidative stress and glycemic control in chronic diseases

Author (year) Country (Reference number) Study design (Sex) Participants numbers Type and dose of Propolis administered Duration (Mean age of subjects) Outcome measures
Hesami S et al. (2019) [120] Iran Parallel RCT (M/F) 62 type 2 diabetic patients Propolis capsule (500 mg) 3 times a day 8 weeks
AGE (mean years (SD)): No information
S.R in Fructosamine level, the level of Ox-LDL
S.I in catalase activity
Giammarinaro E et al. (2018) [121] Italy Parallel RCT (M/F) 40 Patients with gingivitis Anti-oxidant gel formula contains propolis (dose not mentioned …) 3 months
AGE (mean years (SD)): No information
S.R in Salivary oxidative stress
Javadi M et al. (2018) [122] Iran Parallel RCT (M) 60 men with asthenospermia 1500 mg (three capsules of 500 mg) 12 weeks
AGE (mean years (SD)): No information
S.R in MDA.
S.I in total antioxidant capacity
Gao W et al. (2018) [18] China Open-label CT study (M/F) 61 type 2 diabetes patients 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 900 mg
18-week (59.1 years) S.I in GSH, Total polyphenols, total flavonoids and serum levels of IL-6 and
S.R in LDH
N.S in FRAP, SOD, GSHPx, MDA, carbonyls and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β
Zakerkish M et al. (2018) [81] Iran Parallel RCT (M/F) 94 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 capsules daily
each capsule contain: 500 mg
90 days (55.14) S.R in TNF-α and hs-CRP
Mujica V et al. (2017) [123] Chile Parallel RCT (M/F) 67 patients with metabolic disorder 15 drops of propolis 3% (Beepolis®)each time 90 days (46.4 years) S.I in GSH levels, HDL
S R in TBARS levels
Zhao L et al. (2016) [82] China Parallel RCT (M/F) 65 type 2 diabetes patients 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 900 mg
18-week (60.1 years) S.I in GSH and total polyphenols, serum IL-1β and IL-6
S.R in serum carbonyls and LDH and serum TNF-α
N.S in FRAP, SOD, GSH-Px, MDA or Ox-LDL
Afsharpour F et al. (2016) [35] Iran RCT(M/F) 62 patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus 3 capsules daily each capsule contain:500 mg 8 weeks(50.43) S.R in CRP and TNF-α level
Fukuda T et al. (2015) [106] Japan RCT(M/F) 80 patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 tablet once daily
each tablet: 226.8 mg
8 weeks(63.31) N.S in serum levels of TNF-α, hs-CRP and IL-6
Khayyal MT. et al. (2002) [124] Egypt RCT(M/F) 46 patients with mild to moderate asthma 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 200 mg
2 months S.R in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and TNF-α
S.I in The serum levels of IL-10
  1. Abbreviations: RCT Randomized Clinical Trial, M Male, F Female, S.R Significantly Reduction, S.I Significantly Increased, N.S Not Significant difference, TBARS Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, GSH Glutathione, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, MDA malondialdehyde, FRAP ferric-reducing antioxidant power, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, Ox-LDL oxidized low density lipoprotein, SOD superoxide dismutase, TNF-α Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Hs-CRP High sensitive C-reactive Protein, IL interleukin