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Table 2 Effects of propolis and it’s derivate on glycemic indices in clinical trial studies

From: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the effects of Propolis in inflammation, oxidative stress and glycemic control in chronic diseases

Author (year) Country (Reference number) Study design (Sex) Participants numbers Type and dose of Propolis administered Study Duration (Mean age of subjects) Outcome measures
Zakerkish M et al. (2019) [81] Iran Parallel RCT (M/F) 94 type 2 diabetes patients 2 capsules daily
each capsule contain: 500 mg
3-month (55.1 years) S.R in HOMA-IR, Insulin, HbA1C, and 2 h-PPS levels in Propolis group compared with Placebo
N.S in FPG between two groups
Afsharpour F et al. (2019) [35] Iran Parallel RCT (M/F) 62 type 2 diabetes patients 3 capsules daily
each capsule contain: 500 mg
8-week (50.4 years) S.R in FPG, HOMA-IR, Insulin, HbA1C, and 2 h-PPS levels in Propolis group compared with Placebo
Gao W et al. (2018) [18] China Open-label CT study (M/F) 61 type 2 diabetes patients 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 900 mg
18-week
(59.1 years)
N.S in FPG, Insulin and HbA1C levels in Propolis group compared with Placebo
Samadi N et al. (2017) [105] Iran Parallel RCT (M/F) 66 type 2 diabetes patients 3 pills daily
each pill contain: 300 mg
12-week (53.6 years) S.R in FPG
S.R in HbA1C level
El-Sharkawy H et al. (2016) [14] Egypt Parallel RCT (M/F) 50 type 2 diabetes patients 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 400 mg
6-month (50.1 years) S.R in FPG
S.R in HbA1C level
Zhao L et al. (2016) [82] China Parallel RCT (M/F) 65 type 2 diabetes patients 1 capsule once daily
each capsule: 900 mg
18-week (60.1 years) N.S in Serum glocuse, Insulin and HbA1C levels in Propolis group compared with Placebo
Fukuda T et al. (2015) [106] Japan Parallel RCT (M/F) 80 type 2 diabetes patients 1 Tablet daily
each tablet contain: 226 mg
8-week (63.3 years) N.S in HOMA-IR, Insulin and HbA1C levels in Propolis group compared with Placebo
Murata K et al. (2004) [117] Japan Case series study (M/F) 12 diabetic adult patients Propolis Mixed with Mulberry Leaf Extract 30 days (44–74 years) S.R in FPG
S.R in HbA1C level
  1. Abbreviations: RCT Randomized Clinical Trial, M Male, F Female, G Group, S.R Significantly Reduction, N.S Not Significant difference, FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose, FBS Fasting Blood Sugar, 2 h-PPS 2 h Post Prandial Sugar, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance