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Table 2 Metabolic, respiratory, heart rate, perceptual, and physical performance response.

From: Dose response of a novel exogenous ketone supplement on physiological, perceptual and performance parameters

Variable KS1 KS2 PLA p value η2p
Mean VO2 (L/min) 3.5 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 0.706 0.029
Mean VCO2 (L/min) 3.4 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.6 3.3 ± 0.6 0.336 0.087
RER 0.97 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.04 0.172 0.136
Mean VO2 (ml/kg/min) 49.0 ± 6.3 48.2 ± 4.7 48.4 ± 5.6 0.571 0.046
VE (L/min) 106.2 ± 21.4 102.8 ± 19.3 99.8 ± 28.8 0.570 0.046
RR (bpm) 42.7 ± 6.5 42.1 ± 6.9 43.7 ± 6.7 0.155 0.144
Mean carbohydrate oxidation (g/min) 4.2 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 0.8 0.191 0.129
Mean fat oxidation (g/min) 0.20 ± 0.12 0.25 ± 0.15 0.29 ± 0.23 0.316 0.092
Heart rate (b/min) 176.0 ± 8.3 176.8 ± 7.9 175.2 ± 9.3 0.575 0.045
Affect 0.6 ± 2.1 0.4 ± 2.1 0.7 ± 2.2 0.587 0.043
RPE-C 4.8 ± 1.9 4.9 ± 2.2 5.0 ± 2.0 0.524 0.052
RPE-L 5.4 ± 2.0 5.0 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 1.9 0.315 0.092
RPE-O 5.2 ± 1.9 5.0 ± 2.1 5.3 ± 2.0 0.390 0.075
Session RPE 6.2 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.8 6.8 ± 2.1 0.141 0.151
Session affect 0.5 ± 2.3 − 0.8 ± 2.9 − 0.1 ± 2.7 0.088 0.183
Time (s) 1289.0 ± 104.9 1307.3 ± 98.8 1291.1 ± 77.1 0.386 0.076
  1. Gas exchange, respiratory rate (RR), calculated oxidation rates, heart rate (HR), affect, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and time to completion data during 5-km time trail (5-km TT; n = 13). Values are Mean ± SD. One Dose Beta Hydroxybutyrate Salt and Medium Chain Triglycerides, KS1; Double Dose Beta Hydroxybutyrate Salt and Medium Chain Triglycerides, KS2; Flavored Matched Control, PLA; oxygen consumption, VO2; carbon dioxide production, VCO2; heart rate, HR; respiratory exchange ratio, RER; ventilation, VE; respiratory rate, RR; rate of perceived exertion, RPE; rate of perceived exertion for overall body, RPE-O; rate of perceived exertion for chest, RPE-C; rate of perceived exertion for leg RPE-L. Italicized: Did not correct for ketone oxidation (Frayn et al. 1980s; Cox et al.)