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Table 1 Baseline values of adiponectin and glucolipid metabolic parameters in the anthocyanins and placebo group for the participants classified with prediabetes and newly diabetes

From: Anthocyanins increase serum adiponectin in newly diagnosed diabetes but not in prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial

  Prediabetes Newly diabetes
  Anthocyanins (n = 41) Placebo (n = 49) P Anthocyanins (n = 39) Placebo (n = 31) P
Adiponectin (µg/mL) 6.05 ± 2.48 6.49 ± 2.28 0.41 5.93 ± 2.4 5.77 ± 1.62 0.762
Glucose metabolism
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 5.8 ± 0.42 5.63 ± 0.43 0.074 6.49 ± 0.53 6.46 ± 0.48 0.854
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.68 ± 0.68 5.87 ± 0.44 0.145 6.62 ± 0.82 6.48 ± 0.66 0.418
2-h glucose (mmol/L) 7.66 ± 2.03 7.05 ± 1.8 0.144 12.08 ± 3.03 11.74 ± 3.34 0.661
Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 11.58 ± 5.79 11.22 ± 5.6 0.773 11.49 ± 7.12 13.21 ± 6.6 0.314
2-h insulin (μU/mL) 81.45 ± 53.51 82.12 ± 71.98 0.961 102.56 ± 68.11 109.42 ± 71.86 0.686
Fasting C-peptide (ng/mL) 2.27 ± 0.92 2.29 ± 0.81 0.943 2.58 ± 1.1 2.81 ± 1.26 0.424
2-h C-peptide (ng/mL) 10.9 ± 3.68 10.56 ± 3.7 0.674 12.14 ± 3.86 12.45 ± 4.25 0.754
AUC glucose 23.7 ± 4.04 23.96 ± 3.76 0.785 33.66 ± 6.01 32.56 ± 5.55 0.465
AUC insulin 195.77 ± 95.64 208.35 ± 105.93 0.608 211.23 ± 126.83 260.78 ± 129.8 0.142
AUC C-peptide 25.72 ± 7.44 25.47 ± 6.22 0.875 26.64 ± 7.35 29.86 ± 8.47 0.121
HOMA-IR 2.94 ± 1.6 2.91 ± 1.39 0.937 3.41 ± 2.39 3.91 ± 2.18 0.383
HOMA-β 112.65 ± 68.82 104.3 ± 97.25 0.664 77.31 ± 41.61 87.36 ± 38.99 0.316
Lipids
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.99 ± 1.2 5.99 ± 1.03 0.996 6.24 ± 1.17 6.06 ± 1.46 0.57
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 0.9 1.69 ± 1 0.949 1.73 ± 1.14 1.8 ± 1.58 0.822
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.45 ± 0.39 1.48 ± 0.34 0.693 1.48 ± 0.37 1.43 ± 0.34 0.528
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.35 ± 0.88 3.28 ± 0.82 0.67 3.43 ± 0.94 3.33 ± 0.99 0.654
Apo A-1 (g/L) 1.55 ± 0.3 1.66 ± 0.28 0.073 1.64 ± 0.34 1.63 ± 0.34 0.907
Apo B (g/L) 1.17 ± 0.25 1.13 ± 0.22 0.506 1.16 ± 0.22 1.14 ± 0.28 0.836
LDLHDL ratio 2.44 ± 0.76 2.34 ± 0.82 0.554 2.46 ± 0.86 2.46 ± 0.94 0.998
TGHDL ratio 1.33 ± 0.93 1.29 ± 1.08 0.848 1.32 ± 1.21 1.42 ± 1.49 0.77
  1. AUC, area under the curve by 3-h oral glucose tolerance test, were calculated according the trapezoidal rule
  2. HOMA-IR, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA-IR = FIns (mU/mL) × FG (mmol/L)/22.5
  3. HOMA-β, homoeostasis model assessment of β-cell function; HOMA-β = FIns × 20/(FG-3.5)
  4. HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, apo A-1 apolipoprotein A-1, apo B apolipoprotein B, TG Triglycerides
  5. P value was for the differences between the two groups, compared by independent student’s t-test