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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: The relationship between dietary patterns and rheumatoid arthritis: a case–control study

Variables Case Control P value
Age (year) 49.26 ± 12.6 40.88 ± 9.72 < 0.001
Sex, female (%) 81% 76.6% 0.37
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 4.35 24.82 ± 3.2 0.006
Socioeconomic status (SES)b 11.94 ± 3.47 13.57 ± 3.45 < 0.001
Cigarette
No 83% 98% < 0.001a
Yes 17% 2%
Disease history
No 41% 95.9% < 0.001a
Yes 59% 4.09%
Drug use
No 58% 99% < 0.001a
Yes 42% 1%
Education
Lower than diploma 50% 14.7% < 0.001a
Diploma 33% 37%  
Bachelor 15% 31.5%  
Higher than bachelor 2% 16.8%  
Energy intake (kcal) 2243.02 ± 598.55 2168 ± 687.3 0.365
Carbohydrate (g) 258.29 ± 82 317.1 ± 116.63 0.015
Protein (g) 62.09 ± 18.49 72.59 ± 28.24 < 0.001
Fat (g) 98.57 ± 28 73 ± 32.32 < 0.001
Physical activity (MET-min/week) 4512.29 ± 6160 2372.74 ± 2055 < 0.001
  1. Quantitative variables are shown as mean ± SD, and qualitative variables as frequency (percentage); SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index. P values are calculated by independent t-test
  2. aFor categorical data, P values are assessed by Chi-square test
  3. bSocioeconomic status (SES) score was evaluated based on education level of both subjects and the family head, job of both subjects and the family head, family size, home status and home type by using self-reported questionnaire