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Table 1 General, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics of the study subjects classified in different clusters

From: An optimal glycemic load range is better for reducing obesity and diabetes risk among middle-aged and elderly adults

  Cluster 1 (n = 627) Cluster 2 (n = 374) Cluster 3 (n = 357) Cluster 4 (n = 671) \(\upchi ^{2} /{\text{F}}\) P \(\upvarphi /\upeta\)
Advanced age (n (%)) 79 (12.6) 40 (10.7) 50 (14.0) 58 (8.6) 8.573 0.036 0.065
Male (n (%)) 330 (52.6) 58 (15.5) 62 (17.4) 178 (26.5) 216.606 < 0.001 0.327
Current smoker (n (%)) 123 (20.1) 25 (6.9) 17 (4.9) 84 (12.9) 60.632 < 0.001 0.175
Regular alcohol drinkers (n (%)) 25 (4.0) 7 (1.9) 9 (2.5) 25 (3.7) 4.426 0.219 0.047
Regular exercise (n (%)) 93 (14.8) 88 (23.5) 84 (23.5) 121 (18.0) 17.211 0.001 0.092
Diabetic family history (n (%)) 107 (17.1) 59 (15.9) 60 (16.9) 109 (16.4) 0.327 0.955 0.013
BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 ± 2.90 23.3 ± 3.0 23.0 ± 3.1 23.5 ± 3.2 1.452 0.226 0.046
Waist circumference (cm) 81.7 ± 8.8bc 80.0 ± 8.8ad 79.2 ± 8.9ad 81.3 ± 9.5bc 7.797 < 0.001 0.107
FPG (mmol/L) 5.54 ± 0.96b 5.37 ± 0.61a 5.49 ± 0.90 5.43 ± 0.86 3.610 0.013 0.073
2-hPG (mmol/L) 7.85 ± 2.77bc 7.27 ± 1.89a 7.44 ± 2.06a 7.60 ± 2.33 5.269 0.001 0.088
AUCG 6.69 ± 1.72bd 6.32 ± 1.10a 6.47 ± 1.30 6.51 ± 1.44a 5.512 0.001 0.090
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as absolute values (relative frequencies) and were compared using the chi-squared test. Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± SD and were compared using ANOVA and SNK. Advanced age was defined as an age ≥ 65 years; regular exercise was defined as ≥ 7.5 MET-h/w of moderate to vigorous activities
  2. BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2-hPG 2-hour plasma glucose, AUCG area under the curve of glucose
  3. aCompared to Cluster 1, P < 0.05
  4. bCompared to Cluster 2, P < 0.05
  5. cCompared to Cluster 3, P < 0.05
  6. dCompared to Cluster 4, P < 0.05