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Table 3 Caspase-3 activity and TGF-β1level in the hippocampus and prefrontal of experimental groups were detected by Elisa assay kits. Rats treated with high-fat, high-protein, low-calorie, low-calorie high-protein diets for 10 weeks. Control adult and old rats treated with rodent standard pellet. After behavioral tests, rats were euthanized and brains were collected (n = 3)

From: High-protein and low-calorie diets improved the anti-aging Klotho protein in the rats’ brain: the toxic role of high-fat diet

Groups Caspase-3 (U.g) TGF-β1(ng.g)
Hippocampus Prefrontal cortex Hippocampus Prefrontal cortex
Adult-C 6.1 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.4 6.8 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.4
Old-C 6.8 ± 0.3*** 5.4 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.3*** 2.3 ± 0.3***
High-fat 7.1 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.2## 3.2 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.2#
High-protein 6.5 ± 0.4 5.5 ± 0.4 5.6 ± 0.5## 4.1 ± 0.7##
Low-calorie 6.2 ± 0.6# 4.8 ± 0.3# 7.1 ± 0.4## 5.5 ± 0.4##
Low-calorie high-protein 6.0 ± 0.3### 4.5 ± 0.3### 7.5 ± 0.8$### 5.9 ± 0.2$###
  1. ***P < 0.001 versus Adult-C. #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 versus Old-C. $P < 0.05 versus high-protein group