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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants according to clinical cutoffs concentrations of serum 25(OH)D

From: Sufficience serum vitamin D before 20 weeks of pregnancy reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

Clinical cutoffs 25(OH)D
< 20 (ng/mL) 20–30 (ng/mL) ≥ 30 (ng/mL) p value
No. of participants 4070 (48.1%) 3382 (40.0%) 1016 (11.9%)  
GDM, N (%) 492 (12.09%) 329 (9.73%) 98 (9.65%)  
Age (years), mean (SD) 29.17 ± 2.82 29.10 ± 2.81 28.95 ± 2.91 0.099
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 21.11 ± 2.87 21.08 ± 2.87 20.74 ± 2.81 < 0.001
Laboratory results mean (SD)
 25(OH)D (ng/mL) 15.10 ± 3.17 24.27 ± 2.75 34.71 ± 4.41 < 0.001
 Tg (mmol/L) 1.33 ± 0.56 1.34 ± 0.74 1.32 ± 0.57 0.79
 Tch (mmol/L) 4.46 ± 0.73 4.44 ± 0.73 4.39 ± 0.70 0.012
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.51 ± 0.38 4.46 ± 0.35 4.49 ± 0.35 0.015
  1. BMI body mass index, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, Tg triglycerides, Tch total cholesterol