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Table 1 Metabolic risk factors in Caucasian European (N = 158) and Asian Chinese (N = 199) enrolled in the TOFI_Asia Study

From: Metabolomic signatures for visceral adiposity and dysglycaemia in Asian Chinese and Caucasian European adults: the cross-sectional TOFI_Asia study

  Caucasian European Asian Chinese P value
n 158 199  
% female 59 54  
Age (year) 41.7 ± 16.1 40.5 ± 13.3 0.47
Anthropometry
Weight (kg) 79.9 ± 15.7 75.6 ± 14.4 0.007
Height (m) 1.72 ± 0.09 1.66 ± 0.08  < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.9 ± 4.6 27.2 ± 3.9 0.53
Waist circumference (cm) 90.3 ± 14.1 90.0 ± 10.8 0.79
Hip circumference (cm) 101.1 ± 11.8 99.1 ± 10.2 0.07
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)a 120 ± 15 122 ± 17 0.23
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)a 66 ± 8 69 ± 11 0.002
Body composition—b DXA
Total body fat (TBF) mass (kg) 26.6 ± 11.4 25.5 ± 7.8 0.33
%TBF 33.8 ± 10.2 35.0 ± 7.2 0.21
Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass (kg) 2.3 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 1.0 0.65
AAT (% of abdominal tissue mass) 36.8 ± 14.1 40.8 ± 9.1 0.003
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (kg) 0.9 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.6 0.07
%VATTBF 2.86 ± 2.19 3.73 ± 1.98 0.0001
%VATAAT 32.2 ± 19.9 39.7 ± 16.4 0.0002
Blood biochemistry
HbA1cc 33.3 ± 3.6 35.8 ± 3.9  < 0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose, FPG (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 0.6 5.3 ± 0.5  < 0.0001
Fasting plasma insulin (pg/ml) 430.4 ± 316.5 570.6 ± 359.9 0.0001
HOMA2-IR 1.8 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.2 0.8
HOMA2-β 140.4 ± 122.7 126.2 ± 61.4 0.18
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)d 5.0 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 0.9 0.19
Triglycerides (mmol/L), TAGd 1.1 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.9 0.0001
HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L)d 1.6 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4  < 0.0001
LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L)d 2.9 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.8 0.49
Alanine amino transferase, ALT (U/L)e 15.8 ± 10.4 19.3 ± 14.0 0.008
Aspartate amino transferase, AST (U/L)e 20.9 ± 8.7 19.9 ± 6.4 0.23
Alkaline phosphatase, ALP(U/L)e 97.2 ± 27.2 96.2 ± 23.5 0.68
Gamma glutamyl transferase, GGT (U/L)e 23.6 ± 18.2 30.2 ± 23.8 0.003
Amylin (pg/ml) 28.8 ± 15.2 33.8 ± 17.4 0.005
C-peptide (pg/ml) 939.7 ± 554.5 935.3 ± 460.7 0.94
Gastric inhibitory peptide, GIP (pg/ml) 72.4 ± 58.2 79.0 ± 48.0 0.25
Glucagon like peptide – 1, GLP-1 (pg/ml) 146.6 ± 62.0 165.4 ± 87.6 0.02
Glucagon (pg/ml) 59.2 ± 35.3 71.1 ± 35.1 0.002
  1. Results are mean ± SD. Numbers were as stated above each column except for bracketed values
  2. aSystolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 198 Asian Chinese
  3. bBody composition was assessed in 157 Caucasian European
  4. cHbA1c was measured in 157 Caucasian European
  5. dLipid profile and d liver function were assessed in 198 Asian Chinese. Nonstandard abbreviations: DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; HOMA2-IR, Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA2-β: Homeostasis Model Assessment of β-cell function