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Table 2 Ketogenic diet-induced changes in lipids

From: Differential ketogenic diet-induced shift in CSF lipid/carbohydrate metabolome of pediatric epilepsy patients with optimal vs. no anticonvulsant response: a pilot study

   During diet/Prediet
Compound Family Compound optimal response no response
Ketone Bodies 1,2-propanediol 29.16*** 7.47**
Acetoacetate 130.8*** 67.5***
β-hydroxybutyrate 175.5*** 57.4***
Acyl Carnitines Propionyl-carnitine 1.50* 1.48
Acetyl-carnitine 5.19*** 3.89*
Butyryl-carnitine 5.51** 2.40
Octanoyl-carnitine 9.43*** 5.44
Hexanoyl-carnitine 16.09*** 4.73**
3-hydroxybutyryl-carnitine 23.63*** 15.84**
Carnitine Metabolism Carnitine 0.99 1.19
Deoxycarnitine 2.00 1.35
3-dehydrocarnitine 61.96*** 108.5***
Monohydroxy Fatty Acids 2-hydroxyhexanoate 1.28 2.10
3-hydroxypropanoate 2.35 1.46
γ-hydroxybutyrate 3.40*** 2.06**
5-hydroxyhexanoate 6.48* 2.29*
3-hydroxyoctanoate 10.35*** 3.48***
3-hydroxysebacate 22.12** 6.70
Medium Chain Fatty Acids Nonanoic acid 0.97 1.19
Dodecanoic acid 1.05 0.98
Decanoic acid 1.14* 1.12
Octanoic acid 1.90 1.15
Heptanoic acid 2.24 0.73
Hexanoic acid 3.29 1.49
Phospholipid Metabolism Choline 0.96 0.94
Phosphoethanolamine 1.02 1.26
Choline phosphate 1.47 2.50
Trimethylamine N-oxide 715.1** 375.3**
Amide Fatty Acid Oleamide 0.99 16.48
Dicarboxylate Fatty Acids 2-hydroxyglutarate 2.05 1.07
CMPF 8.81* 2.61
Triglyceride Metabolism Glycerol 3-phosphate 0.82** 0.86
Glycerol 1.22 0.89
Lysophospholipids 1-oleoyl-GPC (18:1) 0.46* 2.27
1-docosahexaenoyl-GPE (22:6) 0.93 0.84
1-oleoyl-GPE (18:1) 1.29 1.51
1-palmitoyl-GPC (16:0) 3.16 1.90
Inositol Metabolism Scyllo-inositol 0.84 0.81
Myo-inositol 1.12 0.81
Amino Fatty Acids 2-aminoheptanoate 1.38 1.67
2-aminooctanoate 631.4 9.24*
Fatty Acid Synthesis 2-methylmalonylcarnitine 0.64*** 0.69*
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoate (22:6n3) 2.05 1.07
Primary Bile Acid Metabolism Glycocholate 12.08* 2.44
Sphingolipid Metabolism Palmitoyl sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0) 2.66* 1.73
Corticosteroids Cortisone 0.73** 1.19
Cortisol 0.98 1.65
Androgenic Steroid Androstenediol (3β,17β) disulfate 6.31 6.02
Sterols 7-α-HOCA 0.95 0.88*
  1. Ratios are fold changes from during KD compared to before KD. Compounds are grouped by compound family, and by optimal response ratio within that family. Significant increases are indicated with bold, significant decreases with italics. False-discovery rates: *0.10 < q < 0.20, **0.05 < q < 0.10, ***q < 0.05. 7-HOCA – 7-alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoate, CMPF – 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoate, GPC glycerol-3-phosphocholine, GPE glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine