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Table 2 Metabolic outcomes by breakfast consumption

From: Association between breakfast skipping and metabolic outcomes by sex, age, and work status stratification

Characteristics Regular breakfast, mean (standard deviation) p-value
Yes No
Total participants
 Men
  Abdominal circumference (cm) 82.53 (11.2) 83.83 (10.8) 0.0083
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 116.7 (13.7) 116.8 (12.7) 0.9456
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.32 (11.5) 77.53 (10.9) <.0001
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 99.74 (22.5) 98.05 (21.2) 0.0003
  TG level (mg/dL) 149.6 (13.7) 156.8 (13.8) 0.0128
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 48.14 (10.9) 47.95 (10.9) 0.3939
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.52 (1.5) 1.51 (1.4) 0.7491
 Women
  Abdominal circumference (cm) 75.69 (9.6) 75.30 (9.7) 0.0285
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 111.2 (14.8) 109.0 (13.3) <.0001
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.47 (9.9) 72.15 (9.5) 0.0662
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 94.78 (18.1) 93.68 (18.2) 0.0010
  TG level (mg/dL) 105.9 (79.5) 101.7 (73.9) 0.0028
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 55.06 (12.2) 56.30 (12.3) <.0001
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.17 (1.3) 0.97 (1.2) <.0001
Non-working population
 Men    
 Abdominal circumference (cm) 80.18 (12.5) 81.96 (11.8) <.0001
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 115.4 (13.5) 116.2 (13.0) 0.0306
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.47 (12.2) 75.61 (11.4) <.0001
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 98.98 (21.6) 97.84 (22.2) 0.0841
  TG level (mg/dL) 136.7 (12.5) 148.0 (13.5) 0.0042
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 48.47 (10.9) 48.45 (10.8) 0.9474
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.34 (1.4) 1.36 (1.4) 0.6741
 Women
  Abdominal circumference (cm) 75.19 (10.0) 75.41 (10.2) 0.3559
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110.9 (14.7) 109.0 (13.3) <.0001
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 71.89 (10.1) 71.87 (9.6) 0.9338
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 94.58 (17.5) 94.20 (20.1) 0.4166
  TG level (mg/dL) 107.7 (77.0) 104.2 (72.1) 0.0500
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 54.51 (11.9) 55.68 (12.3) <.0001
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.18 (1.3) 1.03 (1.2) <.0001
Working population
 Men
  Abdominal circumference (cm) 85.27 (8.7) 85.40 (9.5) 0.6219
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118.3 (13.8) 117.2 (12.4) 0.0035
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.65 (9.8) 79.14 (10.2) 0.0925
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 100.6 (23.5) 98.23 (20.4) 0.0003
  TG level (mg/dL) 164.7 (14.8) 164.3 (14.0) 0.9257
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 47.77 (10.8) 47.53 (10.9) 0.4624
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.72 (1.4) 1.63 (1.4) 0.0375
 Women
  Abdominal circumference (cm) 76.53 (8.9) 75.16 (9.1) <.0001
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 111.7 (14.9) 108.9 (13.2) <.0001
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.45 (9.6) 72.49 (9.3) 0.0004
  Fasting glucose level (mg/dL) 95.12 (19.1) 93.02 (15.4) <.0001
  TG level (mg/dL) 102.9 (83.5) 98.56 (76.0) 0.0580
  HDL-C level (mg/dL) 56.00 (12.4) 57.09 (12.4) 0.0021
  Number of abnormal metabolic outcomes 1.16 (1.3) 0.91 (1.1) <.0001
  1. TG Triglyceride
  2. HDL-C High density lipoprotein - Cholesterol