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Table 3 Association between milk consumption and metabolic, skeletal, cognitive, infant and other outcomes

From: Milk consumption and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in humans

Outcomes First author Year Types No. of studies in MA Type of studies in MA No. of cases/total Effects mode Metric of MA Effect size 95% CI I2% Publication bias
Significant associations             
Most beneficial             
Osteoporosis Malmir 2019 Milk 6 Cohort NA Random RRa 0.61 0.50–0.75 NA no
Alzheimer's disease Wu 2016 Milk 2 Cohort 417/NA Random OR 0.63 0.44–0.90 0.0 NA
Cognitive Disorders Wu 2016 Milk 5 Cohort/cross-sectional 1273/NA Random OR 0.72 0.56–0.93 64.0 NA
Metabolic syndrome Mena 2019 Milk 5 Cohort 4065/15,657 Random RR 0.79 0.64–0.97 66.0 NA
Obesity Wang 2016 Milk 16 Cohort/cross-sectional NA Random OR 0.81 0.75–0.88 62.1 0.109
Obesity Wang 2016 Milk 4 Cohort/cross-sectional NA Random ORa 0.84 0.77–0.92 NA NA
Metabolic syndrome Lee 2018 Milk 9 Cohort/case control 7002/29,077 Random RRa 0.87 0.79–0.95 44.7 0.2
T2DM Tian 2017 Milk 7 Cohort NA Random RR 0.87 0.78–0.96 52.2 0.67
Abdominal obesity Lee 2018 Milk 7 Cohort/case control NA Random RRa 0.88 0.79–0.97 56.8 NA
HTG Lee 2018 Milk 4 Cohort/case control NA Random RRb 0.90 0.81–0.98 0.0 NA
Most harmful             
FDA Griebler 2016 Milk 4 RCT/cohort NA/1683 Random RR 3.67 2.73–5.19 0.0 NA
Acne Aghasi 2019 Milk 8 Cohort/case control/cross-sectional 3102/19,376 Fixed OR 1.48 1.31–1.66 23.6 0.17
PD Jiang 2014 Milk 5 Cohort 873/304,193 Random RRb 1.45 1.23–1.73 16.1 0.62
Acne Juhl 2018 Milk 3 Cohort 7856/53,214 Random ORc 1.41 1.05–1.90 NA NA
PD Jiang 2014 Milk 4 Cohort 785/278,786 Random RRa 1.17 1.06–1.30 NA NA
Hip fracture Malmir 2019 Milk 8 Cohort NA Random RRa 1.09 1.07–1.11 NA 0.015
Non-significant associations             
Dental erosion Li 2012 Milk 4 Cohort NA/3387 Random OR 0.67 0.11–4.01 NA NA
Dementia Wu 2016 Milk 3 Cohort/cross-sectional 552/NA Random OR 0.70 0.48–1.02 18.0 NA
Osteoporosis Malmir 2019 Milk 6 Cohort/case control/cross-sectional NA Random RR 0.79 0.57–1.08 63.3 no
Vertebral fracture Matia 2019 Milk 3 Cohort NA/15,295 Random HR 0.81 0.66–1.00 0.0 0.068
HDL-C Lee 2018 Milk 4 Cohort/case control NA Random RRb 0.89 0.75–1.04 72.8 NA
Endometriosis Hoorsan 2017 Milk 2 Cohort/case control 1862/69,702 Random OR 0.90 0.65–1.23 81.2 0.32
Hip fracture Malmir 2019 Milk 10 Cohort NA Random RR 0.93 0.75–1.15 86.7 0.015
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 Milk 11 Cohort 17,241/145,472 Random RRa 0.97 0.93–1.02 57.0 0.07
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 High-fat milk 9 Cohort 267,588/336,061 Random RRa 0.99 0.88–1.11 84.0 0.78
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 Low-fat milk 7 Cohort 200,981/267,588 Random RRa 1.01 0.97–1.05 72.0 NA
Cognitive function Lee 2018 Milk 3 Cohort 714/5460 Random RR 1.21 0.81–1.82 64.1 NA
  1. MA meta-analysis, CI confidence interval, RR risk ratio, OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratio, MD mean difference, PD Parkinson’s disease, FDA Fe-deficiency anaemia, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, HTG hypertriacylglycerolaemia, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NA not available
  2. a200 g/day; bhighest versus lowest; c≤ 1 glass/week versus 1 glass/day