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Table 4 Assessments of AMSTAR 2 scores and GRADE classification

From: Milk consumption and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in humans

Outcomes First author Year Types AMSTAR 2 GRADE
Mortality      
All-cause mortality Mazidi 2018 Milk Moderate Low
CHD mortality Mazidi 2018 Milk Moderate Low
All cancer mortality Lu 2016 Milk High Low
Prostate cancer mortality Lu 2016 Milk High Very low
Prostate cancer mortality Lu 2016 Skim/low-fat milk High Very low
Cancer      
CRC Barrubes 2019 Milk Low Moderate
CRC Barrubes 2019 Low-fat milk Low Low
Prostate cancer Aune 2015 Milk Low Moderate
DLBCL Wang 2016 Milk Critically low Low
Gastric cancr Wang 2018 Milk Critically low Moderate
Bladder Cancer Bermejo 2019 Milk Moderate Moderate
Bladder Cancer Bermejo 2019 Whole milk Moderate Low
Breast cancer Chen 2019 Low-fat milk Critically low Very low
Breast cancer Chen 2019 Milk Critically low Low
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Milk Moderate Moderate
Breast cancer Wu 2016 Skim milk Moderate Moderate
Endometrial cancer Li 2017 Milk Moderate Moderate
ESCC Li 2016 Milk High Moderate
FL Wang 2016 Milk Critically low Very low
HCC Yang 2017 Milk Low Moderate
Lung cancer Yang 2016 Milk Moderate Moderate
Lung cancer Yang 2016 Low-fat milk Moderate Low
NHL Sergentanis 2019 Milk Low Low
Ovarian cancer Liu 2015 Low-fat/skim milk Critically low Low
Ovarian cancer Liu 2015 Milk Critically low Moderate
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Milk Critically low Moderate
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Whole milk Critically low Moderate
Pancreatic cancer Genkinger 2014 Low-fat milk Critically low Moderate
SLL/CLL Wang 2016 Milk Critically low Very low
Cardiovascular outcomes      
CVD Guo 2017 Milk High Low
CVD Soedamah-Muthu 2011 Milk Low Low
CHD Gholami 2017 Milk Moderate Moderate
Arterial Stiffness Diez-Fernandez 2019 Milk High Moderate
Hypertension Soedamah-Muthu 2012 Milk Low Moderate
Stroke de Goede 2016 Milk Moderate Moderate
Stroke de Goede 2016 High-fat milk Moderate Low
Stroke de Goede 2016 Low-fat milk Moderate Low
Stroke Gholami 2017 Milk Moderate Moderate
Metabolic outcomes      
Abdominal obesity Lee 2018 Milk Moderate Moderate
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 Milk Moderate Low
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 Low-fat milk Moderate Low
T2DM Gijsbers 2016 High-fat milk Moderate Low
Hypertriacylglycerolaemia Lee 2018 Milk Moderate Low
Metabolic Syndrome Mena 2019 Milk Critically low Moderate
Metabolic Syndrome Lee 2018 Milk Moderate Moderate
Obesity Wang 2016 Milk Low Moderate
T2DM Tian 2017 Whole milk Low Low
Skeletal outcomes      
Hip fracture Malmir 2019 Milk Low Low
Osteoporosis Malmir 2019 Milk Low Moderate
Vertebral fracture Matia 2019 Milk Low Very low
Neurological outcomes      
Alzheimer's disease Wu 2016 Milk Moderate Very low
Cognitive Disorders Wu 2016 Milk Moderate Low
Cognitive function Lee 2018 Milk Moderate Very low
Parkinson’s disease Jiang 2014 Milk Low Low
Dementia Wu 2016 Milk Moderate Very low
Infant outcomes      
FDA Griebler 2016 Milk Low Low
T1DM Griebler 2016 Milk Low Low
Other outcomes      
Acne Aghasi 2019 Milk Low Moderate
Dental erosion Li 2012 Milk Critically low Very low
Endometriosis Hoorsan 2017 Milk Low Very low
  1. AMSTAR a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews, GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, CRC colorectal cancer, DLBCL diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, FL follicular lymphoma, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, NHL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, SLL/CLL small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, FDA Fe-deficiency anaemia, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus