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Table 3 Participant characteristics by level of the dietary antioxidant index (DIA) among controls, Iranian Gastric Cancer case–control studya, b (n = 95)

From: Validation of Dietary Antioxidant Index (DAI) and investigating the relationship between DAI and the odds of gastric cancer

Characteristics Mean ± SD or N (%) p value
DAI ≤ 0.41 (n = 48) DAI > 0.41 (n = 47)
Age (years) 48.31 ± 11.52 48.36 ± 10.01 0.98
Sex    0.91
 Female 26 (54.16) 26 (55.31)  
 Male 22 (45.83) 21 (44.69)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 25.36 ± 2.73 24.55 ± 2.65 0.14
Family history of cancer    0.72
 Yes 5 (10.41) 6 (12.76)  
 No 43 (89.58) 41 (87.23)  
Education    0.33
 Less than a high school and diploma 36 (75) 31 (65.95)  
 Higher than diploma 12 (25) 16 (34.04)  
Smoking    0.81
 Yes 8 (16.66) 7 (14.89)  
 No 40 (83.33) 40 (85.10)  
Alcohol    0.27
 No 45 (93.75) 41 (87.23)  
 Yes 3 (6.25) 6 (12.76)  
Regular Physical Activity    0.60
 Yes 14 (29.16) 16 (34.04)  
 No 34 (70.83) 31 (65.95)  
H. pylori infection    0.47
 Yes 23 (47.91) 26 (55.31)  
 No 25 (52.08) 21 (44.68)  
Aspirin/NSAID use    0.70
 No 44 (91.66) 42 (89.36)  
 Yes 4 (8.33) 5 (10.63)  
  1. aComparison of mean of case and control groups in case of a normal distribution of variables by the t-test and abnormal distribution of variables by the Mann–Whitney test
  2. bChi-square was used for categorical variables