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Table 4 Adjusted hazard ratios for diabetes in relation to daytime napping among non-obese and obese participants

From: Association of daytime napping in relation to risk of diabetes: evidence from a prospective study in Zhejiang, China

  N. of participants N. of incident diabetes Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
    HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2)       
 Non-napping 25,470 1027 1 1 1 1
 Napping only in summer 13,217 582 1.09 (0.98–1.20) 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 1.07 (0.97–1.19) 1.06 (0.95–1.17)
 Habitual daytime napping 2032 121 1.56 (1.28–1.87) 1.54 (1.26–1.86) 1.47 (1.20–1.78) 1.44 (1.18–1.75)
Obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2)       
 Non-napping 8041 915 1 1 1 1
 Napping only in summer 4431 563 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.04 (0.93–1.16)
 Habitual daytime napping 725 125 1.47 (1.21–1.77) 1.43 (1.18–1.73) 1.38 (1.13–1.66) 1.35 (1.11–1.63)
  1. Model 1, adjusted for age and sex. Model 2, further adjusted for education level (no formal education, primary school, middle school, and high school or above), household income (< 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34,999 yuan, and ≥ 35,000 yuan), marital status, cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current regular), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current regular), meat, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables consumption (daily and non-daily), physical activity (continuous) and sleep duration (continuous). Model 3, further adjusted for and BMI (continuous) and WC (continuous). Model 4, further adjusted for snoring (none, occasional, and habitual)
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