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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics according to total cholesterol levels

From: A nonlinear association of total cholesterol with all-cause and cause-specific mortality

Characteristic Total Total cholesterol, mg/dL
 < 120 120–159 160–199 200–239 240–279  ≥ 280 p Value
Number 30,687 385 4782 11,364 9486 3552 1118  
Age, years 46.0 ± 17.2 39.5 ± 18.6 41.0 ± 18.1 44.5 ± 17.1 48.7 ± 16.3 50.2 ± 16.0 49.6 ± 16.1  < 0.001
Gender, n (%)          < 0.001
 Male 14,662 (47.8) 246 (63.9) 2417 (50.5) 5511 (48.5) 4469 (47.1) 1565 (44.1) 454 (40.6)  
 Female 16,025 (52.2) 139 (36.1) 2365 (49.5) 5853 (51.5) 5017 (52.9) 1987 (55.9) 664 (59.4)  
Race, n (%)          < 0.001
 Mexican American 6120 (19.9) 66 (17.1) 809 (16.9) 2273 (20.0) 2019 (21.3) 717 (20.2) 236 (21.1)  
 Other Hispanic 2449 (8.0) 27 (7.0) 377 (7.9) 898 (7.9) 754 (7.9) 304 (8.6) 89 (8.0)  
 Non-Hispanic White 13,536 (44.1) 136 (35.3) 1996 (41.7) 4910 (43.2) 4237 (44.7) 1710 (48.1) 547 (48.9)  
 Non-Hispanic black 6252 (20.4) 126 (32.7) 1184 (24.8) 2398 (21.1) 1795 (18.9) 577 (16.2) 172 (15.4)  
 Other race—including Multiracial 2330 (7.6) 30 (7.8) 416 (8.7) 885 (7.8) 681 (7.2) 244 (6.9) 74 (6.6)  
Education level, n (%)          < 0.001
 Less than high school 8405 (27.4) 106 (27.6) 1212 (25.4) 3045 (26.8) 2669 (28.2) 1051 (29.6) 322 (28.9)  
 High school or above 22,247 (72.6) 278 (72.4) 3563 (74.6) 8307 (73.2) 6809 (71.8) 2498 (70.4) 792 (71.1)  
Marital status, n (%)          < 0.001
 Other 14,130 (46.6) 239 (62.7) 2545 (53.7) 5391 (48.0) 3981 (42.5) 1499 (42.9) 475 (43.6)  
 Married 16,169 (53.4) 142 (37.3) 2192 (46.3) 5835 (52.0) 5386 (57.5) 1999 (57.1) 615 (56.4)  
Smoking, n (%)          < 0.001
 No 17,083 (55.7) 201 (52.2) 2765 (57.9) 6403 (56.4) 5279 (55.7) 1855 (52.3) 580 (51.9)  
 Yes 13,580 (44.3) 184 (47.8) 2014 (42.1) 4950 (43.6) 4199 (44.3) 1695 (47.7) 538 (48.1)  
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.6 ± 6.6 27.6 ± 7.0 28.0 ± 7.3 28.6 ± 6.7 28.9 ± 6.3 29.0 ± 5.9 28.8 ± 5.3  < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 122.9 ± 18.6 119.9 ± 17.9 118.9 ± 17.0 121.6 ± 17.8 124.6 ± 18.8 127.0 ± 20.2 128.0 ± 21.5  < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 70.3 ± 13.0 65.8 ± 14.6 67.6 ± 12.2 69.9 ± 12.5 71.6 ± 12.9 72.2 ± 14.0 72.2 ± 14.7  < 0.001
eGFR, mg/min/1.73m2 91.3 ± 28.5 96.1 ± 31.6 93.5 ± 28.1 91.8 ± 27.1 89.9 ± 28.2 89.5 ± 30.8 94.0 ± 35.5  < 0.001
Energy intake, kcal 2170.5 ± 1029.4 2338.7 ± 1261.8 2217.8 ± 1065.4 2189.2 ± 1045.7 2141.4 ± 977.8 2131.6 ± 1044.2 2093.5 ± 980.6  < 0.001
Serum lipid level
High density lipoprotein cholesterol          < 0.001
 mg/dL 53.1 ± 15.9 41.8 ± 10.5 49.0 ± 12.3 52.3 ± 14.7 54.8 ± 16.6 56.3 ± 18.8 56.7 ± 20.4  
 mmol/L 1.37 ± 0.41 1.08 ± 0.27 1.27 ± 0.32 1.35 ± 0.38 1.42 ± 0.43 1.46 ± 0.49 1.47 ± 0.53  
Total cholesterol          < 0.001
 mg/dL 198.8 ± 42.2 108.4 ± 10.1 144.9 ± 10.4 180.4 ± 11.4 217.5 ± 11.3 255.6 ± 11.2 308.4 ± 40.3  
 mmol/L 5.14 ± 1.09 2.80 ± 0.26 3.75 ± 0.27 4.67 ± 0.29 5.62 ± 0.29 6.61 ± 0.29 7.98 ± 1.04  
Comorbidities, n (%)
Hypertension          < 0.001
 No 19,146 (62.4) 251 (65.2) 3211 (67.1) 7357 (64.7) 5740 (60.5) 1967 (55.4) 620 (55.5)  
 Yes 11,541 (37.6) 134 (34.8) 1571 (32.9) 4007 (35.3) 3746 (39.5) 1585 (44.6) 498 (44.5)  
Diabetes          < 0.001
 No 26,552 (86.5) 302 (78.4) 3994 (83.5) 9914 (87.2) 8342 (87.9) 3074 (86.5) 926 (82.8)  
 Yes 4135 (13.5) 83 (21.6) 788 (16.5) 1450 (12.8) 1144 (12.1) 478 (13.5) 192 (17.2)  
Treatment, n (%)
Hypoglycemic agents          < 0.001
 No 28,517 (92.9) 329 (85.5) 4233 (88.5) 10,598 (93.3) 8945 (94.3) 3379 (95.1) 1033 (92.4)  
 Yes 2170 (7.1) 56 (14.5) 549 (11.5) 766 (6.7) 541 (5.7) 173 (4.9) 85 (7.6)  
Lipid-lowering drugs          < 0.001
 No 27,777 (90.5) 328 (85.2) 4106 (85.9) 10,166 (89.5) 8766 (92.4) 3361 (94.6) 1050 (93.9)  
 Yes 2910 (9.5) 57 (14.8) 676 (14.1) 1198 (10.5) 720 (7.6) 191 (5.4) 68 (6.1)  
Antihypertensive drugs         0.061
 No 24,471 (79.7) 292 (75.8) 3771 (78.9) 9117 (80.2) 7561 (79.7) 2817 (79.3) 913 (81.7)  
 Yes 6216 (20.3) 93 (24.2) 1011 (21.1) 2247 (19.8) 1925 (20.3) 735 (20.7) 205 (18.3)  
Outcomes, n (%)
Cardiovascular disease mortality          < 0.001
 No 30,200 (98.4) 383 (99.5) 4727 (98.8) 11,209 (98.6) 9316 (98.2) 3478 (97.9) 1087 (97.2)  
 Yes 487 (1.6) 2 (0.5) 55 (1.2) 155 (1.4) 170 (1.8) 74 (2.1) 31 (2.8)  
Cancer mortality         0.124
 No 30,123 (98.2) 376 (97.7) 4706 (98.4) 11,166 (98.3) 9305 (98.1) 3483 (98.1) 1087 (97.2)  
 Yes 564 (1.8) 9 (2.3) 76 (1.6) 198 (1.7) 181 (1.9) 69 (1.9) 31 (2.8)  
All-cause mortality          < 0.001
 No 28,117 (91.6) 349 (90.6) 4420 (92.4) 10,536 (92.7) 8626 (90.9) 3204 (90.2) 982 (87.8)  
 Yes 2570 (8.4) 36 (9.4) 362 (7.6) 828 (7.3) 860 (9.1) 348 (9.8) 136 (12.2)  
  1. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Values are mean ± standardized differences or n (%)