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Table 1 Basic characteristics of study participants according to sex and obesity status

From: Fat mass to fat-free mass ratio and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis in non-obese and obese individuals

Characteristics Men (n = 1017) Women (n = 2402)
Non-obesity (n = 612) Obesity (n = 405) p value Non-obesity (n = 1569) Obesity (n = 833) p value
Age (years) 58.7 ± 9.1 59.3 ± 9.0 0.338 56.4 ± 8.9 57.4 ± 8.1 0.006
BMI (kg/m2) 22.7 ± 1.7 27.1 ± 1.7 < 0.001 22.4 ± 1.8 27.1 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 78.9 ± 6.0 88.8 ± 5.6 < 0.001 74.8 ± 5.8 84.4 ± 5.7 < 0.001
High school education or above, n (%) 145 (23.8) 69 (17.1) 0.010 315 (20.1) 117 (14.2) < 0.001
Lifestyle factors
 Current smokers, n (%) 308 (50.3) 184 (45.5) 0.136 8 (0.5) 4 (0.5) 0.910
 Current drinkers, n (%) 33 (5.4) 21 (5.2) 0.895 8 (0.5) 5 (0.6) 0.780
 Active physical activity, n (%) 141 (23.0) 74 (18.3) 0.068 294 (18.7) 149 (17.9) 0.609
Metabolic profile
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.5 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 1.4 0.896 5.2 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.2 < 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 137.1 ± 18.8 145.4 ± 18.8 < 0.001 135.5 ± 19.5 144.6 ± 20.1 < 0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.4 ± 9.3 86.0 ± 10.0 < 0.001 79.8 ± 9.9 83.8 ± 9.9 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.9 0.313 5.4 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 1.0 0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.2 < 0.001 1.5 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 < 0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.0 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.8 0.063 3.2 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 0.9 < 0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.4 (1.1–1.9) 0.012 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.4 (1.0–1.8) < 0.001
 HOMA-IR 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) < 0.001 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 1.7 (1.3–2.4) < 0.001
White blood cell (109/L) 6.0 ± 1.6 6.2 ± 1.5 < 0.001 5.3 ± 1.4 5.7 ± 1.5 < 0.001
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 88 (14.4) 71 (17.5) 0.186 119 (7.6) 101 (12.1) < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 321 (52.5) 278 (68.8) < 0.001 688 (44.0) 552 (66.3) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 173 (28.3) 190 (46.9) < 0.001 475 (30.3) 312 (37.5)  < 0.001
Body composition
 Fat mass (kg) 13.1 ± 3.5 20.1 ± 4.5  < 0.001 16.2 ± 3.9 24.4 ± 4.6 < 0.001
 Fat-free mass (kg) 47.7 ± 4.3 51.9 ± 5.0 < 0.001 37.1 ± 3.4 38.8 ± 3.7 < 0.001
 Fat-to-fat free mass ratio 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 < 0.001 0.4 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 < 0.001
NAFLD cases, n (%) 94 (15.4) 139 (34.3) < 0.001 216 (13.8) 272 (32.7) < 0.001
  1. Data were means ± SD or medians (interquartile ranges) for skewed variables or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables. P values were calculated from Student’s t tests for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol
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